Loss and Damage

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group II contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report, emphasizes that efforts to avert, minimize, and address loss and damage (L&D) are critical and necessary. Given that collective efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emission and adapt are not enough to match the speed and scale of growing climate impacts, some L&D from climate change is inevitable, even if we achieve the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  

Loss and Damage at COP28 and the Way Forward for 2024

This paper sets out the decisions and conclusions from COP28 on L&D, looks at the L&D agenda for 2024, and considers what continued progress needs to be made.

Potential Coordination Role of the UNFCCC on Loss and Damage

This paper evaluates the current and potential coordination role of the UN Climate Regime in averting, minimizing, and addressing L&D.

Understanding Finance for Loss & Damage Under the UNFCCC  

This paper sets out background and key considerations for understanding finance for addressing and responding to L&D under the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement.

The Institutional Ecosystem for Loss and Damage

By broadly assessing relevant institutions and their frameworks outside the UNFCCC that address elements of L&D, this report contextualizes and assesses the strengths, gaps, and weaknesses of the UNFCCC’s and Paris Agreement’s approach to L&D. 

Defining Loss and Damage

UNFCCC Parties have continued to build upon the tools and institutions needed to minimize, avert, and address L&D since the establishment in 2013 of a formal mechanism on L&D, the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) and its executive committee. The Santiago Network, which sits under the WIM, was operationalized in 2022 and established in 2019 to catalyze the technical assistance, knowledge, and resources developing countries need to address L&D.   

History made at COP27

In a historic agreement at COP27, Parties agreed to establish “new funding arrangements,” including a fund, for assisting developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in addressing and responding to L&D., These arrangements represent a hard-fought compromise between developed and developing countries, but important questions still remain regarding how the L&D funding arrangements and fund will be resourced and operationalized.   

As L&D becomes increasingly a reality around the world and a greater focus of attention in international climate diplomacy. C2ES is making this key issue a central part of our mission, working toward achieving an international consensus on this contentious issue – including through expert analysis, policy briefs, blogs, and convenings of key stakeholders – in a way that is effective to help the most climate vulnerable people around the world.   

Kaveh Guilanpour discusses historic UN vote on CNN International

Kaveh Guilanpour discusses the operationalization of the Loss & Damage Fund on BBC News