COP27 Sharm El-Sheikh

November 6-18, 2022

Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt


C2ES is on the ground at COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, continuing its work on key negotiation issues and with businesses.

A large turnout of world leaders at the start of the COP will signal that climate remains top of the political agenda despite global geopolitical and economic challenges – which of itself could be viewed as a success.

At the same time, global emissions need to halve by 2030 – in what the UN Secretary General has coined the “critical decade” – in order to have a realistic chance of keeping global temperature increase to within the 1.5 degrees Celsius limit of the Paris Agreement and to help safeguard a habitable planet. The recent UNFCCC NDC synthesis report shows that while there has been progress, the world remains far off track from 1.5 degrees compatible pathways, and that not enough countries stepped up since COP26 in Glasgow with more ambitious climate targets.

Two key issues have been mandated for delivery at COP27: the adoption of the Mitigation Work Programme (MWP) and operationalization of the Santiago Network for Loss and Damage. It is vital that Parties agree on both. At the same time, neither will respond immediately to the climate emergency, and a successful outcome on these items will not make front page news (although failure to agree them might).

With Glasgow having largely agreed on the guidance needed to fully implement the Paris Agreement—the “rulebook”—the Egyptian Presidency is essentially the first that will have to oversee the so-called “pivot to implementation.” Implementation is about so much more than the outcome of the formal negotiation process. It is hard, complicated, technical, and not conducive to generating easy headlines. But it is what matters, and COP27 can be a success where progress on implementation is demonstrated, at the technical level in the UNFCCC as well as beyond the negotiating process, in the real world. The full action agenda planned for COP27 can go a long way to demonstrating that real world progress.

COP27 Resources


Mitigation Work Programme

Given the latest IPCC reports, expectations will be high for COP27 to demonstrate progress in enhancing formal ambition such as setting the world on a pathway to both stay within the 1.5 degree Celsius limit. However, new or updated nationally determined contributions (NDCs) submitted by Parties since Glasgow are insufficient to make a significant dent in global emissions. A number of major emitters have not raised the headline targets of their first NDC, and fewer still have responded to last year’s call in Glasgow to do so.

The Mitigation Work Programme (MWP), which could be a critical forum for Parties to facilitate halving emissions in this decade, will be agreed and operationalized at COP. The decision itself will not immediately result in action, but, if set up well, can help Parties ramp up climate action in the near-term and be a vital bridge between the five-year ambition cycle of the Paris Agreement and the need to urgently respond to the climate emergency.

C2ES Resources on Mitigation

UNFCCC Resources:

Loss and Damage

The recent IPCC WGIII report emphasizes that efforts to avert, minimize, and address loss and damage (L&D) are critical and necessary. UNFCCC Parties continue to examine and build upon the tools and institutions needed minimize, avert, and address L&D. In 2019, the Santiago Network on L&D was established as part of the Warsaw international Mechanism (WIM) for L&D to catalyze the technical assistance, knowledge, and resources developing countries need to address L&D.

The second mandated outcome at COP27 is the adoption of the institutional arrangements, operational modalities, and financial arrangements that will operationalize the Santiago Network. The Network will coordinate relevant actors and create a system for Parties and stakeholders to assess L&D needs and connect with those who can provide technical assistance on L&D.

Separately, but relatedly, Parties will continue to raise the issue of finance for L&D, particularly the possibility of establishing a new finance facility on L&D, likely the most contentious issue at COP27. While it seems unlikely that consensus will be reached on establishing a new finance facility in Sharm El-Sheikh, it is essential that a solution is found. Emerging common ground can provide a foundation for a compromise that will facilitate progress and avoid souring the wider negotiations.

C2ES Resources on L&D

UNFCCC Resources


Parties to the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions and part of their obligations to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems. The Paris Agreement established the global goal on adaptation (GGA) to enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change in the context of the temperature goal of the Agreement.

Last year, Parties launched the two-year Glasgow-Sharm el Sheikh (GlaSS) work program to better define the GGA. COP27 will feature the fourth GlaSS workshop this year on “communicating and reporting on adaptation priorities” and an annual report on the workshops for consideration by the subsidiary bodies.

C2ES Resources

UNFCCC Resources


Developed countries have still not delivered on a decade-old promise to provide $100 billion per year of climate finance to developing countries by 2020, funding important to developing countries as they seek to fulfill their own climate commitments.

At COP21, Paris Agreement Parties decided that, before 2025, they would set a new collective quantified goal (NCQG) on climate finance, from a floor—or minimum—of US$100 billion per year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries. Parties began deliberations at COP26 on NCQG. COP27 will feature the fourth Technical Expert Dialogue this year, a high-level ministerial dialogue on the NCQG (complementing a separate high-level ministerial on climate finance), and an annual report that includes the key findings of the Technical Expert Dialogues.

UNFCCC Resources:

The Global Stocktake

The global stocktake (GST) occurs every five years to assess collective progress toward the Paris Agreement’s long-term mitigation, adaptation, and finance goals. The first GST, set to conclude in 2023, has already started: its information collection phase began at COP26 and the Technical Assessment phase kicked off in June 2022.

The second of three Technical Dialogues will take place at COP27, focusing on how gaps in implementation of the Paris Agreement can be bridged towards supporting an outcome of the GST that informs Parties in updating and enhancing their actions and support, as well as enhancing international cooperation for climate action and on identifying opportunities for action across all topics of the GST.

While the GST does not finish this year, the COP27 Presidency will need to find a way of visibly showing progress towards its successful conclusion, which will be the highest profile outcome of COP28 and vital to enhanced climate action.

C2ES’s project, “An Opportunity for Ambition,” will help shape the GST process by ensuring a strong focus on opportunities to scale up climate ambition.

C2ES Resources on the GST

UNFCCC Resources

Action Agenda

The action agenda at COP27 will feature thematic days and announcements outside of the formal negotiations. Given the need to consider how the COP process should evolve to deal with new realities and the shift to implementation Parties should invest more time and focus directly in the action agenda, and help shape it into something that sends clear signals to facilitate enhancement of national level climate action.

Wednesday, 9 Nov – Finance Day
Thursday, 10 Nov – Science Day, Youth & Future Generations Day
Friday, 11 Nov – Decarbonization Day
Saturday, 12 Nov – Adaptation & Agriculture Day
Sunday, 13 Nov – ‘Rest Day’
Monday, 14 Nov – Gender Day, Water Day
Tuesday, 15 Nov – Ace & Civil Society Day, Energy Day
Wednesday, 16 Nov – Biodiversity Day
Thursday, 17 Nov – Solutions Day

Action Hub events at COP27: Coordinated by the UNFCCC, the Action Hub is an amphitheater in the Blue Zone hosting a series of webcast events and announcements in the climate action space. At the Action Hub, the High Level Champions will host Thematic Events as well as complementary Breakthrough Labs to showcase solutions that are already being implemented, highlighting challenges and opportunities of each.

UNFCCC resources:

C2ES Events at COP27

Recharged U.S. Climate & Energy Landscape: Galvanizing Business Solutions for Net-Zero

Co-organized by C2ES, BCSE, and EEI
Nov 11, 2022, 3-4 p.m. (Egypt) 8-9 a.m. (U.S.)
U.S. Center Pavilion, Blue Zone

Watch the livestream from the U.S. Center

Hear from U.S. business executives about how anticipated shifts in clean energy investment, workforce development, community engagement, daily operations, and deployment of clean technology solutions, will usher in a new era for the U.S. economy. Find out how the IRA is catalyzing greater private investment and how new partnerships across the public and private sectors can help deliver those outcomes.


Master of Ceremonies: Nathaniel Keohane, President, C2ES • Lisa Jacobson, President, Business Council for Sustainable Energy • Brian Wolff, President, Edison Electric Institute • Pedro Pizarro, President and CEO, Edison International • Ralph Izzo, Executive Chairman, PSEG • Andres Gluski, President, AES • Kristen Siemen, Chief Sustainability Officer, General Motors • David Bow, Executive Vice President, Plug • Nanette Lockwood, Global Director of Policy and Advocacy, Trane Technologies • Benjamin Cardin, U.S. Senator (D-Md.)


Building A Resilient Future: The Power Sector and The Clean Energy Transition

Organized by EEI
Nov. 12, 2022, 10 a.m.–Noon, (Egypt), 3–5 a.m (US)
The Climate Registry Pavilion, Blue Zone

This event will highlight the role that Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act and the Inflation Reduction Act will play in enhancing resilience efforts. Speakers will showcase how cross-sectoral collaboration identifies and accelerates the most critical adaptation strategies to address the climate crisis. The event will also demonstrate how science-based insights serve as a foundation for a standardized and consensus-based framework to inform infrastructure investment and deployment


  • Lindsey Doyle
    Climate Engagement Lead, USAID
  • Nathaniel Keohane
    President, C2ES
  • Ralph Izzo
    Executive Chairman, PSEG
  • Pedro Pizarro
    President and CEO, Edison International
  • Arshad Mansoor
    President, EPRI



How U.S. companies are implementing the transition to net zero: Experiences across sectors

Organized by C2ES
Nov. 12, 2022, 5-6 p.m. (Egypt) 10-11 a.m. (U.S.)
America Is All In (AIAI) Action Center, Blue Zone

This panel discussion will highlight how prominent multinational companies in different sectors, representing utilities, fuel developers, industrial end users, and technology companies, are accelerating the supply and demand of key breakthrough technologies and climate solutions—hydrogen, sustainable aviation fuel, renewable natural gas, 24/7 carbon free energy, and carbon removals—necessary to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.

  • Verena Radulovic
    Vice President for Business Engagement, C2ES
  • Amy Chiang
    Vice President, Global Government Relations, Honeywell
  • Roger Martella
    Vice President, Chief Sustainability Officer, General Electric
  • Guy van Nieuwenhove
    Senior Vice President, Director of Portfolio Management & Business Development, National Grid Ventures
  • Marsden Hanna
    Head of Sustainability and Climate Policy

Taking Stock of the Global Stocktake

Nov. 16, 2022, 11 a.m.-Noon (Egypt), 4–5 a.m. (U.S ET)
EU Pavilion, Blue Zone

Register Here (click login)

The conclusion of the 2nd Technical Dialogue (TD) of the Global Stocktake (GST) will take us past the midway point of COP27 and the GST, which concludes at COP28. In Egypt, Parties and non-Party stakeholders will have just engaged in dialogue on how the international community can go from where it is now, to the achievement of the Paris Agreement goals. What have they learned halfway through the GST process? What can be influenced next year and what do we hope to see at the conclusion of COP28?


  • Kaveh Guilanpour
    Vice President of International Strategies,C2ES
  • Lavanya Rajamani
    Professor of International Environmental Law, University of Oxford
  • Juliana Arciniegas
    Project Director, Transforma
  • Sebastian Oberthür
    Professor, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and University of Eastern Finland
  • Andrew Higham
    Director Plexus Strategy
  • Casey Cronin
    Director, Global Intelligence, ClimateWorks