Outcomes of the UN Climate Change Conference in Sharm El-Sheikh

Labeled the “implementation COP” for being the first conference held after the last of the Paris Agreement’s rulebook was agreed in Glasgow, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 27th Conference of the Parties (COP27) in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, succeeded in some key aspects, despite significant geopolitical and economic challenges. At the same time, governments struggled over ambitious language on enhancing mitigation action and support in this decisive decade. Rather than significantly building on the Glasgow outcome, countries just about safeguarded it even as the world takes further steps toward breaching the 1.5 degrees C limit of the Paris Agreement.

Some Parties were disappointed that the outcome only retains, rather than builds on, the calls to phase down unabated coal power and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, as adopted in the Glasgow Climate Pact at COP26. Furthermore, the call from Glasgow for countries to enhance their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in line with the Paris Agreements 1.5 degrees C limit did not elicit the needed response.

Despite ongoing interrelated energy, food, and financial crises, COP27 adopted—in a historic first—funding arrangements for L&D that includes a L&D fund. Parties also agreed on two key deliverables mandated for COP27: (i) a mitigation work programme (MWP) focused on pre-2030 ambition; and (ii) arrangements operationalizing the Santiago Network, a mechanism to match technical assistance for vulnerable countries addressing L&D.