Library

For a closer look at the issues and our work, here’s a searchable collection of C2ES reports, briefs, maps, videos, speeches, articles, testimony and other public comments.

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Billion-Dollar Extreme Weather Events

Click on any circle to learn about one of the billion-dollar weather events, or any state to learn about billion-dollar droughts, between January 2000 and June 2019. Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Climatic Data Center. This map and …

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State of World Carbon Pricing

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Public Benefit Funds

Public Benefit Funds (PBF), also frequently referred to as system benefits charge, are state-level programs developed through the electric industry restructuring process. PBFs allocate most of their money to energy efficiency, renewable energy, and low-income assistance programs.  PBF-supported programs include …

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U.S. State Carbon Pricing Policies

Compared to command-and-control regulations, carbon pricing is a market-based mechanism that creates financial incentives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Ten states that are home to over a quarter of the U.S. population and account for a third of U.S. …

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Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Programs

Local governments use Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs to help property owners finance renewable energy and energy efficiency improvements on residential and commercial properties. Commercial properties may include multi-family residential, industrial and agricultural properties. The PACE concept began as …

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U.S. State Climate Action Plans

Many states have completed comprehensive Climate Action Plans, or are in the process of revising or developing one. The plans detail steps that the states can take to reduce their contribution to climate change. The process of developing a climate …

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U.S. State Electricity Portfolio Standards

Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia require electric utilities to deliver a certain amount of electricity from renewable or other clean energy sources. Most of these requirements take the form of: a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) adopted by 25 …

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Net Metering Programs

Net Metering is a billing method or a financial incentive provided by utilities to customers (commercial and residential) who have installed any form of small-scale distributed generation. This includes rooftop solar, small wind, biogas, micro-combined heat and power, micro turbines, …

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Decoupling Policies

Under the present rate structures in U.S. energy markets, utilities’ revenues depend on the amount of energy they produce and deliver to consumers. This system discourages utilities from enacting conservation and efficiency measures because they would decrease sales, and therefore …

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Energy Efficiency Standards and Targets

Energy efficiency can be a cost-effective strategy to reduce emissions associated with electricity and natural gas generation and consumption. An Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) or energy efficiency target is a mechanism to encourage more efficient generation, transmission, and use …

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