Montreal Protocol

Short-lived Climate Pollutants
Solar Climate Intervention: Options for International Assessment and Decision-Making

There is a growing risk that the global response to climate change will be inadequate to avoid an unsafe global climate. There is corresponding interest in exploring the potential need for, and feasibility of, rapid responses to avoid dangerous climate …

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Accounting for Bottom-Up Trading Under the Paris Agreement

Article 6 of the Paris Agreement recognizes that countries may engage in different forms of international cooperation to achieve climate goals, and prescribes broad conditions for such cooperation if it is to count toward achievement of parties’ nationally determined contributions …

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HFO-1234yf: An Examination of Projected Long-Term Costs of Production

This paper seeks to inform the discussion on what the price of HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) might be over the longer term when application and process patents have expired, economy of scale is achieved at production facilities using the most efficient processes, …

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Nations agree on historic HFC phasedown
Not-in-Kind Alternatives to High Global Warming HFCs

As parties to the Montreal Protocol consider an amendment to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), one critical concern is the availability of zero- or low-global warming potential (low-GWP) alternatives to replace high-global warming potential (GWP) HFCs. While much of the attention …

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A critical opportunity to build on the Paris Agreement
Blog Post
Advancing toward an HFC phasedown
Status of Legal Challenges: Patents Related to the use of HFO1234YF in Auto Air Conditioning

One of the key challenges identified by Parties to the Montreal Protocol as part of the Dubai Pathway on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) relates to concerns raised about intellectual property rights. Because a large number of patents on low global warming potential …

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Advancing toward phasing down HFCs