Stephen O. Andersen

Posts by Stephen O. Andersen

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Paper
HFO-1234yf: An Examination of Projected Long-Term Costs of Production

This paper seeks to inform the discussion on what the price of HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) might be over the longer term when application and process patents have expired, economy of scale is achieved at production facilities using the most efficient processes, …

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Not-in-Kind Alternatives to High Global Warming HFCs

As parties to the Montreal Protocol consider an amendment to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), one critical concern is the availability of zero- or low-global warming potential (low-GWP) alternatives to replace high-global warming potential (GWP) HFCs. While much of the attention …

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Approaches to Structuring a High Ambient Temperature Exemption

As parties to the Montreal Protocol consider an amendment to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), one critical concern is whether suitable alternatives for air-conditioning applications are available and adequately demonstrated for cooling capacity and energy efficiency under conditions of high ambient …

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Technological Change in the Production Sector under the Montreal Protocol

With negotiations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) considering limits on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as potent greenhouse gases, this paper examines past transitions during the relatively short, but dynamic history of this international treaty. …

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