International

Climate change is a global challenge and requires a global solution. Through analysis and dialogue, the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions is working with governments and stakeholders to identify practical and effective options for the post-2012 international climate framework. Read more

 

Coal Initiative Series: A Resource and Technology Assessment of Coal Utilization in India

 

India Coal Technology Paper

Coal Initiative Series White Paper:

A Resource and Technology Assessment of Coal Utilization in India

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Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
October 2008

By:
Ananth P. Chikkatur, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

A Resource and Technology Assessment of Coal Utilization in India continues the series of Pew Center papers that explore strategies for addressing CO2 emissions from using coal to provide electricity.

Electricity production in India is projected to expand dramatically in the near term to energize new industrial development, while also easing the energy shortages throughout the country. Much of the new growth in electricity production will be fueled by domestic coal resources; however, there is worldwide concern about increased coal use, as greater carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal combustion will exacerbate climate change. At the same time, there are now a number of different existing and emerging technological options for coal conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction worldwide that could potentially be useful for the Indian coal-power sector. This paper reviews coal utilization in India and examines current and emerging coal power technologies with near- and long-term potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal power generation.

Ananth P. Chikkatur
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Towards a New International Climate Change Agreement

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by Elliot Diringer
September 2008

This article is draft version of a chapter in the forthcoming book, Development in the Balance: How Will the World's Poor Cope with Climate Change?, to be published by the Brookings Institution Press


Executive Summary:

A successful post-2012 climate agreement must engage all the world's major economies through a "multi-track" framework allowing different types of commitments for developed and developing countries. The 25 major economies accounting for 84 percent of global emissions are extremely diverse, with per capita incomes and per capita emissions ranging by a factor of 18. Strategies for integrating climate action with broader economic and development agendas will vary with national circumstance. Accommodating these differences requires a flexible but binding international framework integrating different types of commitments, such as economy-wide emission targets, policy-based commitments, and sectoral agreements. Incentives for developing countries, including both market-based schemes and direct assistance, also must be provided. A post-2012 agreement might advance adaptation on two fronts: proactively, by facilitating comprehensive national planning; and reactively, by helping countries cope with the risks that remain. Given the time it will take a new U.S. administration and Congress to establish a domestic climate policy, a detailed post-2012 agreement is unlikely when governments meet in late 2009 in Copenhagen. Instead, governments should aim for consensus on a broad framework and continue negotiating toward specific commitments.

by Elliot Diringer, Director of International StrategiesPreview to a chapter in the forthcoming book, Development in the Balance: How Will the World's Poor Cope with Climate Change?
Elliot Diringer
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Towards a New International Climate Change Agreement - Article

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Read the full article (pdf)

by Elliot Diringer
September 2008

-This article is draft version of a chapter in the forthcoming book, Development in the Balance: How Will the World's Poor Cope with Climate Change?, to be published by the Brookings Institution Press-


Executive Summary:

A successful post-2012 climate agreement must engage all the world's major economies through a "multi-track" framework allowing different types of commitments for developed and developing countries. The 25 major economies accounting for 84 percent of global emissions are extremely diverse, with per capita incomes and per capita emissions ranging by a factor of 18. Strategies for integrating climate action with broader economic and development agendas will vary with national circumstance. Accommodating these differences requires a flexible but binding international framework integrating different types of commitments, such as economy-wide emission targets, policy-based commitments, and sectoral agreements. Incentives for developing countries, including both market-based schemes and direct assistance, also must be provided. A post-2012 agreement might advance adaptation on two fronts: proactively, by facilitating comprehensive national planning; and reactively, by helping countries cope with the risks that remain. Given the time it will take a new U.S. administration and Congress to establish a domestic climate policy, a detailed post-2012 agreement is unlikely when governments meet in late 2009 in Copenhagen. Instead, governments should aim for consensus on a broad framework and continue negotiating toward specific commitments.

Climate Change Mitigation Measures in India

International Brief
September 2008

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India is the world’s fourth largest economy and fifth largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions. India’s emissions increased 65% between 1990 and 2005 and are projected to grow another 70% by 2020.  On a per capita basis, India’s emissions are 70% below the world average and 93% below those of the United States. As in many other countries, India has a number of policies that, while not driven by climate concerns, contribute to climate mitigation by reducing or avoiding GHG emissions.

For more details on policies and measures related to climate change in India, please read our India Policy Brief (pdf).

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Statement: G8 Climate Goal

Statement of Eileen Claussen, President
Pew Center on Global Climate Change

July 8, 2008

The G8’s endorsement of an aspirational long-term climate goal is a positive step but far short of a solution.  While cutting global emissions in half by 2050 probably would not avoid dangerous climate change altogether, it would greatly reduce the odds of catastrophic impacts.  And with emissions now rising faster than ever, meeting such an ambitious goal requires an all-out global effort.
 
But more important than the long-term goal is actually getting the job started, and there the G8 again failed to deliver.  Endorsing the use of economy-wide goals to achieve absolute emission reductions is a step forward for President Bush.  But what is needed – and what is missing – is a clear declaration by the industrialized powers that they are ready to negotiate strong, binding mid-term targets.  That is the kind of leadership it will take to get all the major economies on board an effective, sustained global effort.

 

More G8 coverage
Click here to listen to an interview with Elliot Diringer, Director of International Strategies at the Pew Center.

Summary: India's National Action Plan on Climate Change

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National Action Plan on Climate Change
Government of India

June 2008
Click here for a pdf of this summary.

On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation.  The plan identifies eight core “national missions” running through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change by December 2008.

Emphasizing the overriding priority of maintaining high economic growth rates to raise living standards, the plan “identifies measures that promote our development objectives while also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively.”  It says these national measures would be more successful with assistance from developed countries, and pledges that India’s per capita greenhouse gas emissions “will at no point exceed that of developed countries even as we pursue our development objectives.”

National Missions

National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes:

  • Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments;
  • A goal of increasing production of photovoltaics to 1000 MW/year; and
  • A goal of deploying at least 1000 MW of solar thermal power generation.
    Other objectives include the establishment of a solar research center, increased international collaboration on technology development, strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity, and increased government funding and international support.

National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Current initiatives are expected to yield savings of 10,000 MW by 2012.  Building on the Energy Conservation Act 2001, the plan recommends:

  • Mandating specific energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries, with a system for companies to trade energy-savings certificates;
  • Energy incentives, including reduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances; and
  • Financing for public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption through demand-side management programs in the municipal, buildings and agricultural sectors.

National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:

  • Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
  • A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste;
  • Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and
  • Incentives for the use of public transportation.

National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.

National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. 

National Mission for a “Green India”: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.

National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration.  It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.

Other Programs

The NAPCC also describes other ongoing initiatives, including: 

  • Power Generation: The government is mandating the retirement of inefficient coal-fired power plants and supporting the research and development of IGCC and supercritical technologies.
  • Renewable Energy: Under the Electricity Act 2003 and the National Tariff Policy 2006, the central and the state electricity regulatory commissions must purchase a certain percentage of grid-based power from renewable sources.
  • Energy Efficiency: Under the Energy Conservation Act 2001, large energy-consuming industries are required to undertake energy audits and an energy labeling program for appliances has been introduced.

Implementation

Ministries with lead responsibility for each of the missions are directed to develop objectives, implementation strategies, timelines, and monitoring and evaluation criteria, to be submitted to the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change. The Council will also be responsible for periodically reviewing and reporting on each mission’s progress. To be able to quantify progress, appropriate indicators and methodologies will be developed to assess both avoided emissions and adaptation benefits.

Read the full National Action Plan on Climate Change (pdf)

Transcript of Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh's Speech (June 30, 2008)

 

Related Reading:

 

 

WEF CEO Climate Policy Recommendations to G8 Leaders

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On Friday, June 20, a group of CEOs from sixteen World Economic Forum Industry Partner companies submitted climate policy recommendations to Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan and current G8 President.

The process was coordinated by the World Economic Forum in collaboration with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The Pew Center on Global Climate Change served as a resource partner.

Read the CEO Climate Policy Recommendations to G8 Leaders

The WEF Industry Partner Steering Board consists of the following companies:

  • Alcoa (USA)
  • AIG (USA)
  • Applied Materials (USA)
  • Basic Element (Russian Federation)
  • British Airways (UK)
  • Deutsche Bank (Germany)
  • Duke Energy (USA)
  • Electricité de France (EdF) (France)
  • Eskom (South Africa)
  • Petrobras (Brazil)
  • RusHydro (Russian Federation)
  • Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands)
  • Telstra (Australia)
  • Tokyo Electric Power (Japan)
  • TNT (Netherlands)
  • Vattenfall (Sweden)

Technology Funding in a Post-2012 Climate Framework - Background Note

**This background note was released on June 11, 2008 at the UNFCCC Bonn Climate Change Talks**

In the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, developed countries commit generally to provide financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, needed by developing countries to fulfill their obligations under the Convention. 

In order to successfully support the adoption of climate-friendly technologies in developing countries, multiple sources of investment – including public and private finance, carbon finance, and multilateral funding – are needed. 

This note outlines key design issues and options in considering new means of multilateral funding for climate-friendly technology in a post-2012 climate change agreement.

Download the full paper (pdf) 

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Modeling Post-2012 Climate Policy Scenarios

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The Center, in collaboration with the Battelle Memorial Institute, is modeling a range of post-2012 global climate policy scenarios. Interim results from this innovative modeling exercise were presented at a side event at the UN climate change talks in Bonn, Germany, in June 2008.

The aim of this initiative is to visualize and to assess alternative post-2012 architectures incorporating different types of climate commitments, including absolute economy-wide emission targets, policy-based commitments, and sectoral agreements. The scenarios are not intended as “proposals” for a future framework. Rather, they are meant to illustrate a range of possible approaches in order to better understand their relative merits.

The modeling is the latest in a series of analyses building on the core finding of our Climate Dialogue at Pocantico: engaging all the major economies in an effective post-2012 climate effort requires a flexible framework allowing countries to take on different types of commitments. The six policy scenarios modeled represent different combinations of:

  • Economy-wide emissions targets (absolute, intensity-based, and “no lose”);
  • Policy-based commitments (national policy packages including measures such as efficiency standards or sectoral intensity targets);
  • Sectoral agreements (uniform or differentiated standards applied to a given sector in all countries); and
  • Funding commitments to support adaptation and technology deployment in developing countries.

The specific configurations of the six scenarios are described in the presentation.

The analysis compares the projected emissions, economic, and technology impacts of the six scenarios to a “business-as-usual” reference scenario, and to idealized “economically efficient” emission pathways for achieving CO2 concentrations of 450, 550, and 650 ppmv. (There is no prescribed environmental outcome in the six policy scenarios; the aim was for all to achieve outcomes in the range of 450-600 ppmv.)

Preliminary insights from the analysis include the following:

  • Environmental Effectiveness – A range of policy mixes can deliver near- and medium-term emission reductions consistent with achieving a reasonable long-term environment outcome – provided they are stringent enough. The particular policy sets prescribed in these scenarios result in CO2 concentrations in 2100 in the range of 550 ppm. However, if the policies described were to be made more stringent, any of these architectural frameworks could produce stronger environmental outcomes.
  • Equity – A range of policy mixes can produce a reasonable distribution of costs. In scenarios with full global emissions trading, mitigation costs are redistributed through trading, and targets can be differentiated to achieve a desired distribution of costs. However, a reasonable distribution of costs also can be achieved in scenarios in which only some regions have economy-wide targets and others participate through other types of commitments.
  • Economic Efficiency – Over the long term, emission reduction efforts will be more economically efficient if a regime transitions to full coverage of emissions and to full global emissions trading. In the nearer term, scenarios employing policies other than economy-wide targets diverge from the idealized “efficient” emissions pathway to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the specific policies assumed. One question that emerges is whether allowing a range of commitment types at this stage – and, in so doing, sacrificing some economic efficiency – is a reasonable tradeoff to deliver the effort, equity, and broad participation needed to put economies on track toward meeting the long-term objective of preventing dangerous climate change.


Another round of modeling based on revised policy scenarios is planned, with a final report expected in late 2008.

Previous work building on the Climate Dialogue at Pocantico includes:

Adaptation to Climate Change: International Policy Options
Policy-Based Commitments in a Post-2012 Climate Framework

International Sectoral Agreements in a Post-2012 Climate Framework

Towards an Integrated Multi-track Climate Framework

 

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Press Release - EU Emissions Trading System Delivers Valuable Lessons

Press Release
May 8, 2008
Contact: Tom Steinfeldt, (703) 516-4146


EU EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM DELIVERS VALUABLE LESSONS
New Report Offers Insights to Policy-Makers on Cap and Trade
 

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change today releases a new report examining the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) that offers a realistic assessment of the system’s initial objectives and outcomes. The report, “The European Union’s Emissions Trading System in Perspective,” by A. Denny Ellerman and Paul L. Joskow of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, examines the development, structure, and performance of the system to date.

As the U.S. Congress moves closer to developing a national climate change policy, this report delivers key insights into the world’s first carbon dioxide cap-and-trade program. Through analysis of the controversies and lessons learned from the program’s initial three-year trial phase, the authors provide important information for U.S. policy-makers and other countries. Main findings of the report include:

  • Good information is critical. Accurate data on baseline emissions is needed to create an effective trading system that results in sufficient emissions reductions;
  • Suppliers quickly factor the price of emissions allowances into their business decisions under a cap-and-trade program;
  • Price volatility can be reduced by including banking and limited borrowing of emissions allowances;
  • The relationship between allowance allocation, allowance markets, and the unsettled state of electricity regulation must be understood and addressed to avoid unintended consequences; and
  • The linkage of 28 separate trading programs in the EU ETS provides a valuable prototype for a globally linked carbon market.


“The EU’s experience with emissions trading offers valuable lessons for Congress as they work to craft a sensible cap-and-trade program for the U.S.,” said Pew Center President Eileen Claussen. “The EU has done more than any other nation or set of nations in limiting GHG emissions – and the implementation of their cap-and-trade system has been a key part of their efforts.”

The report finds initial concerns with the EU ETS are being addressed and the program’s trial period has provided important lessons about the creation of new emissions trading schemes. In fact, the system has worked much as it was envisioned ¬– it established a European-wide carbon price; caused businesses to incorporate this price into their decision-making; and created the infrastructure for a multi-national trading program. In addition, emission reductions were realized in some covered sectors which underscore the system’s initial benefits.

The report helps address key cap-and-trade concerns in the U.S. and internationally, including over-allocation, price volatility, and excessive “windfall” profits. While it remains a work in progress, the EU ETS affords many important lessons for policy-makers and major stakeholders to consider when developing appropriate short- and long-term measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

For more information about global climate change and the activities of the Pew Center, visit www.c2es.org.

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The Pew Center was established in May 1998 as a non-profit, non-partisan, and independent organization dedicated to providing credible information, straight answers, and innovative solutions in the effort to address global climate change. The Pew Center is led by Eileen Claussen, the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.

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