Key Negotiations and Related Outcomes of the UN Climate Change Conference in Dubai

Referred to as the “GST COP” for marking the conclusion of the Paris Agreement’s first global stocktake (GST), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 28th Conference of Parties (COP28) held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) resulted in some historic successes and hard-fought compromises.

COP28 was arguably expected to deliver on four primary outcomes: the first GST; arrangements to operationalize the loss and damage (L&D) funding arrangements including a fund; the framework for the global goal on adaptation (GGA); and a clear signal to accelerate the energy transition away from fossil fuels, including a target for tripling of global renewable energy capacity and doubling the rate of energy efficiency by 2030. Despite Parties navigating ongoing energy, geopolitical, and financial crises over the course of 2023, COP28 delivered on each of these outcomes to varying degrees.

Given that the mandate of the GST was to inform subsequent greater ambition and enhance international cooperation, whether COP28 was truly a success remains to be determined. The Paris Agreement decision requires that new nationally determined contributions (NDCs)—more ambitious than the last ones—be communicated in early 2025. It is essential that these updated NDCs provide critical information—particularly regarding how their NDC was informed by the outcomes of the GST, as set out by the COP24 decision, including the key policy signals and calls to action. COP28’s success, therefore, will largely be determined by what happens over the coming twelve months.

C2ES will work to support momentum to implement the outcomes from COP28 through 2024—focusing on the goal to triple global renewable energy capacity by 2030. Momentum can be best built by using the tools and mechanisms set out by the UNFCCC, including the COP28 outcome, and activating existing coalitions and initiatives that are well-placed to focus attention and effort on the calls to action set out by the UAE Consensus.