International

Climate change is a global challenge that requires global solutions. Efforts like the Paris Agreement strengthen confidence that all countries are doing their share, helping each country do even more.

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Measuring success in Paris
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Before and beyond Paris: Climate action at all levels
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Will the Paris agreement be a legally binding treaty?
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Significant progress toward limiting HFCs under the Montreal Protocol
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Putting the UNFCCC to the test
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Patents and the Role of the Multilateral Fund

Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are considering actions to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) because of their contributions to climate change. One important issue raised by Article 5 Parties is the concern that patents on …

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Technological Change in the Production Sector under the Montreal Protocol

With negotiations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) considering limits on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as potent greenhouse gases, this paper examines past transitions during the relatively short, but dynamic history of this international treaty. …

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New commitments to reduce HFCs show leadership
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What would a “legal” agreement in Paris look like?
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The Paris talks: Looking behind the scenes