Bills of the 110th Congress Concerning Climate Change

The bills, resolutions, and amendments of the 110th Congress dealing with climate change are divided into the following categories:

 

GHG Emission Limits

H. Con. Res. 96: Concurrent Resolution expressing the sense of the Congress that there should be enacted a mandatory national program to slow, stop and reverse emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Norman Dicks (21 cosponsors)

H. Con. Res. 96: Concurrent Resolution expressing the sense of the Congress that there should be enacted a mandatory national program to slow, stop and reverse emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Norman Dicks (21 cosponsors)

H. Con. Res. 96: Concurrent Resolution expressing the sense of the Congress that there should be enacted a mandatory national program to slow, stop and reverse emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Norman Dicks (21 cosponsors)

H.R. 620: Climate Stewardship Act. The Act establishes a market-driven system of tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) allowances, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, to begin in 2012. Allowances would be equal to 6.13 million metric tons of CO2e after 2011, reducing to 5.239 million metric tons after 2019, 4.1 million after 2029, and 2.096 after 2049. The bill would also establish a national greenhouse gas database and registry, as well as a Climate Change Credit Corporation, a non-profit corporation with a board appointed by the President of the United States. This corporation would be allocated a portion of tradable allowances, and be able to buy and sell other allowances, and is directed to use the proceeds from its trading activities to reduce costs borne by consumers as a result of the GHG reduction requirements of the Act. Sponsor: Rep. John Olver (D-MA) (17 cosponsors)

H.R. 823:
A bill to authorize Federal agencies and legislative branch offices to purchase greenhouse gas offsets and renewable energy credits.
Sponsor: Rep. Peter Welch (D-VT) (14 cosponsors).

H.R. 2635: Carbon-Neutral Government Act of 2007. This title, among other provisions, directs each federal agency to annually inventory and report its GHG emissions. Not later than 18 months after enactment, the EPA must promulgate annual GHG reduction targets for the total emissions of all agencies taken as a whole, for each fiscal year from 2010 through 2050. The title also sets GHG emissions standards for federal vehicle fleets, based on the California Code of Regulations. In addition, the bill requires the Secretary of Energy to establish new efficiency standards for federal buildings, so that by 2030 they have achieved a 100% reduction in fossil-fuel generated energy consumption compared to consumption in 2003. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) (14 cosponsors) Action: 8/3/07: Reported by Committee on Oversight and Government by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 2643:
Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2008. Among other provisions, the bill declares that "it is the sense of the Congress that there should be enacted a comprehensive and effective national program of mandatory, market-based limits and incentives on emissions of greenhouse gases." The bill appropriates $266 million for basic research on climate change to the Department of the Interior (through the USGS), the EPA, and the U.S. Forest Service. It also appropriates $50 million to establish a commission on climate change adaptation and mitigation. In addition, the bill appropriates $2 million to develop regulations to reduce GHG emissions, pursuant to the Supreme Court's ruling in Massachusetts v. EPA. Sponsor: Rep. Norman Dicks (D-WA). Action: 6/11/07: Reported by the Committee on Appropriations by voice vote. 6/26/07: The language calling for limits on greenhouse gas emissions was subjected to a stripping amendment by Rep. Joe Barton (R-TX), which was rejected by 153-274; the provision was preserved. 6/27/07: Passed the House by a vote of 272-155.

S. 6: National Energy and Environmental Security Act. This non-binding resolution expresses the sense of Congress that Congress should enact, and the President should sign, legislation to enhance the security of the United States by reducing the dependence of the United States on foreign and unsustainable energy sources and the risks of global warming by--(1) requiring reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases; (2) diversifying and expanding the use of secure, efficient, and environmentally-friendly energy supplies and technologies; (3) reducing the burdens on consumers of rising energy prices; (4) eliminating tax giveaways to large energy companies; and (5) preventing energy price gouging, profiteering, and market manipulation. Sponsor: Sen. Harry Reid (D-NV) (13 cosponsors)

S. 280: Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007. The Act establishes a market-driven system of tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) allowances, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, to begin in 2012. The Act would divide the economy into sectors—electricity, transportation, industry, and commercial—each subject to separate, sector-wide emissions cap, while allowing inter-sector trading. Allowances would be equal to a maximum of 6.13 million metric tons of CO2e after 2011, reducing to 5.239 million metric tons after 2019, 4.1 million after 2029, and 2.096 after 2049; the quantities of these allowances could be reduced, depending on the GHG emissions of the rest of the economy and emitters not subject to the cap. The bill would also establish a national GHG database and registry, as well as a Climate Change Credit Corporation, a non-profit corporation with a board appointed by the President of the United States. This corporation would be allocated a portion of tradable allowances, and be able to buy and sell other allowances, and is directed to use the proceeds from its trading activities to reduce costs borne by consumers as a result of the GHG reduction requirements of the Act. The Act also contains provisions to encourage the innovation and deployment of advanced, climate-friendly technologies; it also directs the Secretary of Commerce to conduct research on the impact of climate change on low-income populations around the world, and the costs of mitigating those impacts. Sponsor: Sen. Joseph I. Lieberman (I-CT) (9 cosponsors)

S. 309: Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act. The Act, through an amendment to the Clean Air Act, requires the United states to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by the year 2050, in the following stages: 1/3 of 80% of 1990 levels by 2030; 2/3 of 80% of 1990 levels by 2040; and fully 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. The Act gives the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency the discretion to propose GHG reductions, and provides a menu of policy options, including market-based measures—such as emissions trading—among others, to achieve those reductions. The bill also requires the Administrator to mandate that, not later than January 1, 2010, each fleet of highway vehicles over 10,000 pounds sold by a manufacturer in the United States must, beginning in model year 2020, meet the following GHG tailpipe emissions standards: not more than 850 CO2e grams per mile (gpm) for highway vehicles with a gross vehicle weight (GVW) rating between 10,001 and 26,000 pounds; and not more than 1,050 CO2e gpm for such vehicles with a GVW rating of more than 26,000 pounds. The bill gives the Administrator the discretion to increase the stringency of these administrators after model year 2020. Among other provisions, the bill also contains GHG emission standards for electric generation units and energy efficiency and promotes research into carbon capture and sequestration. Sponsor: Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-VT) (11 cosponsors)

S. 317: Electric Utility Cap and Trade Act of 2007. The Act creates a greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade system for electric generating facilities of 25 megawatt capacity or larger. Beginning in 2011, the Act would limit total GHG emissions by these facilities to their total emissions in 2006; to 2001 levels in 2015; in each year from 2016 to 2019, by an additional 1% reduction based on the emissions reduction of the previous year; and in each year from 2020 onwards, by an additional 1.5% reduction based on the emissions reduction of the previous year. Emissions credits would be distributed through a mix of auction and allocation, with proceeds from auctions going into a Climate Action Trust Fund. Monies from the Trust Fund would be used to fund research and development for climate-friendly technologies, and adaptation assistance for workers and communities, among other purposes. Sponsor: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) (1 cosponsor)

S. 485: Global Warming Reduction Act of 2007. The Act would "establish an economy-wide global warming pollution emission cap-and-trade program," among other provisions. The bill declares that it shall be a goal of the United States to work with other greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting countries to limit average global concentrations of GHGs at 450 parts per million, and to reduce emissions to 65% of year 2000 levels by 2050. The bill requires the United States to reduce emissions to 1990 levels by 2020; by at least an additional 2.5 percent below each preceding year between 2021 and 2030; and by at least an additional 3.5 percent each preceding year between 2031 and 2050. The bill directs the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to design the cap-and-trade system, and gives the Administrator discretion over the scope of the system, including which sectors would be subject to the cap. The bill also directs the President, in conjunction with the Administrator and other Federal agencies, to submit to Congress a plan for how the tradable allowances should be distributed. In addition, the bill directs the Administrator to establish GHG emissions standards for passenger vehicles which will meet or exceed the standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board in September 2004. The bill also contains provisions concerning research and development, energy efficiency standards, the renewable portfolio standard, and carbon capture and sequestration, among others. Sponsor: Sen. John F. Kerry (D-MA) (2 cosponsors)

S. 1059: Zero-Emissions Building Act of 2007. The Act amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act by inserting language that requires and specifies reductions in GHG emissions in Federal buildings. Sponsor: Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1168:
Clean Air/Climate Change Act of 2007. This bill amends the Clean Air Act to establish a regulatory program for pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric generating sector. Among other provisions, it requires each electric generating unit constructed or modified after January 1, 2105, to meet a performance standard of 1,100 pounds of CO2/mWh or less. The bill also sets declining annual tonnage limits for CO2, SO2, and nitrogen oxide emissions from units within the 48 contiguous States, and requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish CO2 and nitrogen oxide allowance trading programs for generating units. In addition, the bill authorizes the Administrator to award offset allowances for certain offset projects, and provides guidelines for awarding such offsets. Sponsor: Sen. Lamar Alexander (R-TN) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1177: Clean Air Planning Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill promulgates declining annual national pollutant tonnage limitations for CO2 emissions, SO2, nitrogen oxides, mercury, and emissions from the electric generating sector. It also establishes allowance trading programs for these pollutants. In addition, it establishes a Climate Action Trust Fund, to be funded by revenues from auctions of allowances from the separate trading programs, and to be used for clean and low-carbon energy technology research and development, adaptation assistance for workers and communities negatively affected by climate change and greenhouse gas regulation, and wildlife and habitat conservation and adaptation. Sponsor: Sen. Thomas Carper (D-DE) (7 cosponsors)

S. 1201: Clean Power Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to reduce emissions from electric power plants, by requiring caps on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if the President has not signed legislation affecting at least 85% of GHG emissions and on an economy-wide basis by December 31, 2012. The bill also directs the Administrator to establish an emissions allowance permitting and trading system. In addition it imposes a low-carbon generation requirement on certain fossil fuel-burning power plants. Sponsor: Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-VT) (3 cosponsors)

S. 1227:
Clean Coal Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill would require that each coal-fired electric generating unit that commences construction on or after April 26, 2007 shall meet a performance standard of not more than 285 pounds of carbon dioxide emitted pre megawatt-hour. Carbon dioxide that a facility geologically sequesters would not be counted as emitted. Sponsor: Sen. John Kerry (D-MA)

S.1766: Low Carbon Economy Act of 2007. This bill is intended to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and use of energy. It would establish a cap-and-trade system for GHG emissions, beginning in 2012. The bill's goal is to reduce United States GHG emissions to 2006 levels by 2020 and to 1990 levels by 2030. Facilities subject to the cap are petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants and liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, importers of liquid fossil fuels, importers and manufacturers of non-carbon dioxide GHGs, large coal-consuming facilities, and manufacturers of adipic or nitric acid, aluminum smelters. The bill establishes a technology accelerator payment (TAP), which regulated entities can pay in lieu of submitting an emission allowance; the initial price of the TAP is $12/metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2)equivalent in 2012, increasing at a rate of 5% above the rate of inflation per year. Funds received under the TAP mechanism will be used to fund technology development and deployment. Emission allowances will be allocated to industry sectors: 12% to coal mines; 7% to petroleum refineries; 4% to natural gas processing facilities; 54% to electricity generating facilities; 4% to nonfuel regulated activities; and 19% to carbon-intensive manufacturing facilities. 9% of allowances will be allocated to states, and allowances will also be allocated for agricultural projects and for early reductions according to rules yet to be established. The bill creates bonus allowances for carbon capture and sequestration, starting at an allowance-to-ton of sequestered CO2 of 3.5/1 in 2012, and declining to .5/1 in 2039. The bill specifies that 24% of all allowances to be auctioned at the start of the program, increasing to 53% by 2030. Auction proceeds will be used to fund the Energy Technology Deployment Fund, for research, development, and deployment of low-carbon technologies, as well as international technology deployment. Auction funds will also be deposited in a Climate Adaptation Fund to mitigate the effects of climate change; and the Energy Assistance Fund, to be used to ease the financial impact of higher energy costs. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) (6 cosponsors)

S.1874: Containing and Managing Climate Change Costs Efficiently Act. This bill would establish a Carbon Market Efficiency Board, supervised by the Department of Treasury, to promote the achievement of the environmental objectives of the United States, including any national mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap and reduction targets.

The bill gives the Board the power to, in the first two years of GHG allowance trading program, increase the amount of allowance that covered entities may borrow, but only in the event that the average daily closing price of an emissions allowance exceeds the upper range predicted by the Congressional Budget Office prior to the start of the program. In subsequent years, the Board will have the power to: (1) temporarily increase the amount that covered entities can borrow, lengthen the payback period of loans, and/or lower the interest rate on loans; and, in the event of more extreme economic circumstances, (2) to temporarily expand the total number of allowances in the economy, provided that subsequent years' caps are tightened sufficiently to ensure that cumulative emissions reductions over the long term remain unchanged. The Board is only to use these powers as needed to avoid significant harm to the economy. Sponsor: Sen. Mary Landrieu (D-LA) (3 cosponsors) This bill is intended to serve as a cost containment amendment for any GHG cap-and-trade bill brought to the full Senate

S. 2191: The Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act (L-W CSA). This bill would establish a cap-and-trade program within the United States requiring a 70% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from covered sources, which represent over 80% of total U.S. emissions. The bill as amended also includes complementary policies, such as a low carbon fuel standard and provisions aimed at enhancing energy efficiency. Taken together, the bill's sponsors believe these provisions will reduce overall U.S. GHG emissions roughly 63% by 2050.

The L-W CSA divides the six GHGs into two categories: Group I (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, and perfluorocarbons) and Group II (hydrofluorcarbons). For all GHGs, the bill uses the common unit of measurement CO2 equivalent (CO2e)—the quantity of GHGs that the U.S. EPA has determined makes the same contribution to global warming as one metric ton of CO2. The L-W CSA would create two separate caps, one covering facilities that produce HFCs and the other covering facilities that:

  • Use more that 5,000 tons of coal annually;
  • Process, produce, or import natural gas;
  • Produce or import petroleum or coal-based fuel that when combusted will emit a Group I GHG;
  • Produce for sale or distribution or import more than 10,000 CO2e of chemicals that are group I GHGs, assuming no capture or permanent sequestration
  • Emit as a by-product of HCFC production more than 10,000 CO2e of HFCs

Overall, the two caps combined are expected to cover over 80% of total U.S. GHG emissions, although some process related emissions are not covered.

The cap on facilities producing HFCs would start in 2010 at 300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) and decline to 90 MMTCO2e by 2037, remaining at that level through 2050. Emissions from all other covered facilities would be capped at 5775 MMTCO2e in 2012, with this cap decreasing annually to 1732 MMTCO2e in 2050. The two caps combined would result in roughly a 19% reduction from 2005 levels in 2020 and a 70% reduction from 2005 levels by 2050.  

Beginning in 2012 and continuing through 2030, the L-W CSA would provide transition assistance in the form of free allowances to electric power generators (19%), manufacturers (10%), fuel producers or importers (2%), HFC producers and importers (2%), and rural electric cooperatives (1%). In addition, 5% of the total emission allowance account will be allocated to early actors from 2012-2017 and 4% for carbon, capture and sequestration activities from 2012-2030. Approximately 30.5% of the total allowance account will be set aside from 2012-2050 for other entities, including states, load-serving entities, farms and forests, coal mines, and others.  Starting in 2012, 26.5% of allowances would be auctioned (including 5% for an early auction to be held shortly after enactment), with the proceeds going to energy technology deployment, low-and middle-income energy consumers, adaptation efforts in the U.S., and programs to support energy independence and national security. Over time, the auction will grow so that by 2031, 69.5% of the allowances would be auctioned and the revenue used for these purposes.

The L-W CSA allows covered facilities to satisfy up to 15% of their compliance obligation with specific domestic offsets. An additional 15% can be covered using international emission allowances. Unlimited banking is allowed and owners and operators of covered facilities can borrow up to 15% of their annual compliance obligation from future years. The L-W CSA also creates a Carbon Market Efficiency Board to monitor the carbon trading market and implement specific cost relief measures, including increased borrowing and use of offsets.

The L-W CSA includes a review of the commitments of other major-emitting nations to reduce their GHG emissions. Eight years after enactment the President is authorized to require importers of GHG emission-intensive products from countries that have not taken action comparable to the U.S. to submit credits equal to those required of domestic manufactures. Sponsor: Sen. Joseph I. Lieberman (I-CT) (9 cosponsors). Action: 11/1/07: Reported by the Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife Protection Subcommittee of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee by a vote of 4-3. 12/5/07: Reported by the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee by a vote of 11-8.

See also: H. Con. Res. 104, H.R. 1186, S. 1073

 

GHG Emission Reporting

H.R. 2651: Greenhouse Gas Accountability Act of 2007. This bill directs the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting program.

H.R. 2651: Greenhouse Gas Accountability Act of 2007. This bill directs the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting program. The act would require annual reports of emissions from firms that directly or indirectly emit over 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (mt/CO2e) at any one facility; firms whose total direct or indirect emissions exceed 100,000 mt/CO2e; firms which produce or import fuels, chemicals, and other GHGs that when used or combusted will emit over 100,000 mt/CO2e. In addition, the bill would require annual GHG emission reports from any public company with annual revenues exceeding $10 million; as well as any firm with annual revenues exceeding $10 million in the following industries: automobile and auto parts; aerospace and defense; chemicals; construction materials; electric utilities; energy equipment and services; oil, gas, and consumable fuels; metals and mining; paper and forest products; and transportation. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY)

H.R. 3240: To enhance availability of critical energy information. This bill directs the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration to establish a 5-year plan to enhance the quality and scope of the data it collects. In its findings section, the bill cites the importance of State energy information to policymakers as the consider and implement policies to cut greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Rick Boucher (D-VA) (1 cosponsor) Action: 8/3/2007: Reported by the Committee on Energy and Commerce by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

S. 183:
Improved Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Act. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Commerce to establish a national registry system for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits, and includes regulatory language for trading of said credits.
Sponsor: Sen. Ted Stevens(R-AK) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1387: National Greenhouse Gas Registry Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 to create a mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, registry, and information system. The bill would require GHG inventory and registration of major emitting facilities and major stationary sources (as defined in the Clean Air Act); facilities that create GHGs through electricity generation, or manufacturing; facilities which import or manufacture GHGs, and underground, methane-emitting coal mines. Excluded from the requirement are small businesses that emit fewer than 10,000 metric tons of GHGs (note: not measured in carbon dioxide equivalent) a year, although they can participate in the registry voluntarily. Sponsor: Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1411: Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Registry Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to establish a Federal Emissions Inventory Office within the EPA. The bill directs this office to measure and verify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from: sources owned or controlled by the federal government (such as a motor vehicle fleet); production of electricity purchased and used by the federal government; or the conduct of a project or activity (including outsourced projects or activities) by the federal government, such as employee travel or the use of an energy-intensive material, such as paper. Sponsor: Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) (2 cosponsors)


GHG Emission Reporting provisions are contained in a number of larger climate bills. Also see: H.R. 620:, S. 280:, S. 309:, S. 317:, S. 485:, S. 1073:

 

Carbon Tax

H.R. 2069:Save Our Climate Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a carbon tax based on the carbon content of primary fossil fuels.

H.R. 2069:Save Our Climate Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a carbon tax based on the carbon content of primary fossil fuels. The tax would be imposed on any taxable fuel—coal (including lignite and peat), petroleum and any petroleum product, and natural gas—which is extracted, manufactured, or produced in the United States or entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing.

H.R. 2069:Save Our Climate Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a carbon tax based on the carbon content of primary fossil fuels. The tax would be imposed on any taxable fuel—coal (including lignite and peat), petroleum and any petroleum product, and natural gas—which is extracted, manufactured, or produced in the United States or entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing. The tax would be imposed on the manufacturer, producer, or importer of that fuel, and would start at $10 per ton of carbon in such fuel. The bill directs the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Energy to determine the carbon content of taxable fuels. For each calendar year beginning after 2008, the tax will increase at a rate of $10 per year, until the level of US CO2 emissions does not exceed 20% of 1990 levels, as determined by the Energy Information Administration. Sponsor: Rep. Fortney Stark (D-CA) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 3416:
America’s Energy Security Trust Fund Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a tax on the carbon dioxide content of coal (including lignite and peat), petroleum and any petroleum product, and natural gas, which is extracted, manufactured, or produced in the United States or entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing. Beginning in 2008, the bill would impose a tax of $15 per ton of CO2 content, increasing incrementally each year thereafter. The bill provides for tax refunds for generated CO2 that is sequestered or offset by a qualified offset project. Revenues generated by the tax would fund the America’s Energy Security trust fund, which would be used for clean energy technology research and development, industry transition assistance, and payroll tax relief. Sponsor: Rep. John Larson (D-CT)

 

International Negotiations

H. Con. Res.

H. Con. Res. 104: Expressing the sense of the Congress regarding the need for the United States to participate in international climate change negotiations to protect the country's economic and national security interests, establish mitigation commitments by all countries that are major GHG emitters, establish international mechanisms to minimize the cost of efforts by participating countries and achieve a significant long-term reduction in global GHG emissions.
Sponsor: Rep. Russ Carnahan (D-MO) (1 cosponsor)

H.RES.355: Recognizing and welcoming the leaders of the Pacific Islands to Washington, D.C. and commending the East-West Center for hosting the Pacific Islands Conference of Leaders. In the preamble, this resolution cites the addressing of climate change as an area in which the United States and the Pacific island nations can enhance their cooperation. Sponsor: Rep. Eni Faleomavaega (D-AS) (24 cosponsors) – Action: 5/7/2007: Passed the House by voice vote.

H.RES.418: Recognizing and welcoming the delegation of Presidents, Prime Ministers, and Foreign Ministers from the Caribbean to Washington, D.C. and commending the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). In the preamble, this resolution cites the addressing of climate change as an area in which the United States and Caribbean countries can enhance their cooperation. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (28 cosponsors) – Action: 6/11/2007: Passed the House 386-0.

H.R. 1186: United States-India Energy Security Cooperation Act of 2007. The Act authorizes the President to establish programs in support of greater energy cooperation between the United States and India, including providing assistance to India for cooperation related to the research, development, and deployment of, among others: clean coal and emission reduction technologies, carbon sequestration projects, and alternative fuel sources such as ethanol, bio-mass, and coal-based fuels. The Act also requires the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Energy to submit a report to Congress on energy security cooperation between the U.S. and India. Sponsor: Rep. Joe Wilson (R-SC) (2 cosponsors)

H.R. 1886:
To prevent public financing of oil or gas field development projects, surveying or extraction activities, processing facilities, pipelines, or terminals, or other oil and gas production or distribution operations or facilities, and for other purposes. Among other provisions, this bill finds that "Emissions from combustion of oil and gas account for just over one-third of all global greenhouse gas emissions. While the vast majority of greenhouse gas emissions have occurred in the wealthy countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, it will be the poorest countries, who can least afford to adapt to a changing climate, who will suffer first and worst."Sponsor: Rep. Maurice Hinchey (D-NY)

H.R. 2764:
The Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008. This bill amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to allow funds appropriated for agriculture, rural development, nutrition, population and health, energy, and conservation activities, and for the Economic Support Fund, to be used to support tropical forestry and biodiversity conservation activities and energy programs aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The bill also appropriates $195 million to support clean energy and other climate change programs in developing countries, including energy conservation, energy efficiency, clean energy technologies, carbon sequestration, and climate change mitigation and adaptation programs. Sponsor: Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY) Action: 6/18/07: Reported by the House Committee on Appropriations by voice vote. 6/22/07: Passed the House by a vote of 241-178. 7/10/07: Reported favorably by the Senate Committee on Appropriations by voice vote. 9/6/07: Passedthe Senate by 81-12.

H.R. 2798: Overseas Private Investment Corporation Reauthorization Act of 2007. The bill requires the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) to institute a climate change mitigation action plan. The bill requires the action plan to include: a goal of substantially increasing OPIC support of and giving preferential treatment to projects that use, develop, or promote the use of clean energy technology; assess the degree to which certain projects contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Sponsor: Rep. Brad Sherman (D-CA) (3 cosponsors) Action: 6/26/07: Reported by the House Committee on Foreign Affairs by a vote of 23-5. 7/23/07: Passed the House by voice vote.

S. RES. 30:
Expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the need for the United States to participate in international climate change negotiations to protect the country's economic and national security interests, establish mitigation commitments by all countries that are major GHG emitters, establish international mechanisms to minimize the cost of efforts by participating countries and achieve a significant long-term reduction in global GHG emissions.
Sponsor: Sen. Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (D-DE) (25 cosponsors) – Action: 3/28/07: Passed by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by voice vote.

S. 193: Energy Diplomacy and Security Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act expresses the sense of Congress that "development of renewable energy through sustainable practices will help lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and enhance international development." The bill also directs the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Energy to establish and expand strategic energy partnerships with other countries for a variety of purposes, including carbon sequestration.
Sponsor: Sen. Richard G. Lugar (R-IN) (9 cosponsors) – Action: 4/12/07: Passed by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by voice vote.

S. 1007: United States-Brazil Energy Cooperation Pact of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Energy to establish a Western Hemisphere Energy Cooperation Forum, which would include among its goals the facilitation of "the use of carbon sequestration methods in agriculture and forestry and linking greenhouse gas emissions reduction programs to international carbon markets." The Act also directs the Secretary of Agriculture to work with the Government of Brazil to "facilitate joint agricultural extension activities related to biofuels crop production, biofuels production, and environmental and greenhouse gas emissions reduction practices." Additionally, the bill requires the Secretary of State to work with governments in the Western Hemisphere and other countries to organize regional and hemispheric carbon trading mechanisms under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and existing trade and financial agreements to (1) establish special carbon credits for the preservation of tropical rain forests; (2) use greenhouse gas-reducing farming practices; (3) jointly fund greenhouse gas sequestration studies and experiments in various geological formations; and (4) jointly fund climate mitigation studies in vulnerable areas in the Western Hemisphere," and appropriates $5 million for fiscal year 2008 for said purposes.
Sponsor: Sen. Richard G. Lugar (R-IN)

Also see: S. 485:

 

National Security & Climate Change

H. Amdt. 174: An amendment to H.R. 2082 to strike the provision requiring that a National Intelligence Estimate on global climate change be submitted to Congress. Sponsor: Rep. Peter Hoekstra (R-MI) - Action: 5/11/07: the amendment failed by a vote of 185-230.

H. Amdt. 174: An amendment to H.R. 2082 to strike the provision requiring that a National Intelligence Estimate on global climate change be submitted to Congress. Sponsor: Rep. Peter Hoekstra (R-MI) - Action: 5/11/07: the amendment failed by a vote of 185-230.

H.R. 1961: Global Climate Change Security Oversight Act. This bill requires the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) to prepare a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on the anticipated geopolitical effects of global climate change and the implications of such effects on the national security of the United States. Not later than 270 days after the DNI submits the required NIE, the bill directs the Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a report on the projected effects of global climate change on the military installations and capabilities, and military operations of the United States as assessed by the NIE. In addition, the bill expresses the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Defense should address the climate change-related findings of the NIE as they relate to the armed forces in the next Quadrennial Defense Review. The bill also directs the Secretary of State to, not later than 270 days after the submittal of the NIE, to submit to Congress a report that addresses the potential for large migration flows in countries of strategic interest or humanitarian concern as a response to changes in climate and the implications for United States security interests; and the potential for diplomatic opportunities and challenges facing the United States as a result of social, economic, or political responses of groups or nations to climate change. Finally, the bill authorizes the Secretary of Defense to carry out research on the impacts of global climate change on the military, including war gaming and other simulations, and analysis of potential impacts of large-scale Arctic sea-ice melt, and severe weather events. Sponsor: Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) (10 cosponsors)

H.R. 2082: Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008. Section 407 of this bill would require the Director of National Intelligence to prepare a National Intelligence Estimate on the anticipated geopolitical effects of global climate change and the implications of such effects on the national security of the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Silvestre Reyes (D-TX) - Action: 5/11/07: Passed the House by a vote of 225-197.

S. 1018: Global Climate Change Security Oversight Act. The Act would "address security risks posed by global climate change," by requiring that, not more than 270 days after the bill's enactment, that the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) submit to Congress a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on the "anticipated geopolitical effects of global climate change and the implications of such effects on the national security of the United States." The bill directs the DNI to use the mid-range projections of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in preparing the NIE. Sponsor: Sen. Richard J. Durbin (D-IL) (8 cosponsors)

 

Climate-Friendly Technology

H.R. 729: Home Energy Generation Act. The Act would "amend the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to promote energy independence and self-sufficiency by providing for the use of net metering by certain small electric energy generation systems," and mandates that customers generating energy with qualified generating units will, where applicable, retain title to greenhouse gas or renewable energy credits. Sponsor: Rep.

H.R. 729: Home Energy Generation Act. The Act would "amend the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to promote energy independence and self-sufficiency by providing for the use of net metering by certain small electric energy generation systems," and mandates that customers generating energy with qualified generating units will, where applicable, retain title to greenhouse gas or renewable energy credits. Sponsor: Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) (30 cosponsors)

H.R. 931: America's Domestic Fuels Act. The Act authorizes a total of $25 million to the Secretary of Energy to disburse as grants to "provide for the research, development, and demonstration of coal gasification technology as an energy source in ethanol production." The total 2008 authorization includes $5 million for research and development activities, and $20 million for demonstration projects. Investigation of carbon capture and sequestration technology is a stated research aim of the grants. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry Costello (D-IL) (12 cosponsors)

H.R. 1126: An act to reauthorize the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. The bill adds language to the reauthorized Act which refers to "[t]he development of technologies which reduce greenhouse gas emissions." Sponsor: Rep. Dan Lipinski (D-IL) (9 cosponsors) - Action: 2/28/07: Reported by the House Committee on Science and Technology by voice vote. 3/12/07: Passed by the House by voice vote. 7/15/07: Reported by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources by voice vote.

H.R. 2272: America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (America COMPETES) Act. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Energy to establish an Advanced Research Projects authority to overcome the long-term and high-risk technological barriers in the development of energy technologies, including carbon-neutral and carbon sequestration technology. Sponsor: Rep. Bart Gordon (D-TN) (21 cosponsors) – Action: 5/21/07: Passed the House by voice vote. 7/19/07: Senate strikes all after enacting amendment and substitutes the language of S. 761, then passes the bill by unanimous consent. 8/1/07: House-Senate conferees file conference report. 8/2/02: Passed the house 367-57; passed the Senate by unanimous consent. 8/9/07: Signed by the President. Public Law 110-69.

H.R. 2304:
Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act of 2007. This bill, among other purposes, directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for geothermal energy. Among other provisions, the bill directs the Secretary to report to Congress on the advanced uses of geothermal energy, including the use of carbon dioxide as an alternative geofluid with potential carbon sequestration benefits. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerny (D-CA) (14 cosponsors) Action: 6/21/07: Reported by the House Committee on Science and Technology by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 2641: Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2008. Among other provisions, this bill, according to the accompanying committee report, appropriates $150 million to the Department of Energy for research into climate change, including modeling, monitoring radiation in the atmosphere, and long-term experiments on the impact of increased CO2 levels on forests and other ecosystems. The bill also appropriates $1.9 billion for climate-friendly, energy efficiency and renewable energy programs including: solar energy, biofuels (including cellulosic ethanol), vehicle technology, energy efficient buildings, weatherization grants, hydropower, and geothermal energy. In addition, the bill appropriates $639.2 million for funding for a Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant at the Idaho National Laboratory. Sponsor: Rep. Peter Visclosky (D-IN) Action: 6/6/07: Reported by the House Appropriations Committee by voice vote. 7/17/07: Passed by the House by 312-112.

H.R. 2809: New Apollo Energy Act of 2007. This bill contains many provisions intended to promote new energy technologies, and includes a variety of measures intended to reduce American greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among other provisions, it instructs the National Institute of Building Sciences to establish standards for the construction of new commercial and residential buildings that will reduce CO2 emissions, compared to emissions from similar buildings in 2003, by 40% by 2010 and by 70% by 2020. The bill also directs the Administrator of the EPA to promulgate low carbon fuel performance standards for fuels and aircraft, similar to those proposed by Rep. Inslee in H.R. 2215. In addition, the bill authorizes the Secretary of Energy to make loan guarantees for commercial demonstration projects of low carbon renewable fuels. The bill also amends the Clean Air Act to instruct the Administrator of the EPA to promulgate regulations to require each manufacturer of automobiles for sale in the United States to reduce the average GHG emissions per vehicle mile. It also directs the Secretary of Commerce to work through NOAA to carry out a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) (23 cosponsors)

H.R. 2848:
Solar Opportunity and Local Access Rights Act. This bill would amend the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to provide for the use of net metering by certain small electric energy generation systems, and language in the bill ensures that where applicable, customer-generators will retain ownership and title to any renewable energy or greenhouse gas credits that accrues to their energy generation activities. Sponsor: Rep. Dennis Cardoza (D-CA) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 2950:
Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill requires the President to establish a renewable fuel standard for motor vehicle fuel and home heating oil sold or introduced into the United States, and mandates that renewable fuels produced from facilities that commence operations after enactment achieve at least a 20% reduction in life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to gasoline. The bill also requires the President to establish criteria for a system of voluntary labeling of renewable fuels based on life-cycle GHG emissions. In addition, the bill also authorizes funds for: grants for research and development of low-carbon fuels and low-GHG-emitting advanced biofuels; studies of the effects of renewable fuel use on GHG emissions; and an assessment of carbon sequestration and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. It also makes reducing GHG emissions a condition of grants for: an electric drive transportation technology demonstration program; a State energy training partnership program. It also makes GHG emission reductions a criteria in amending fuel economy standards, and cites reducing GHG emissions as a goal of energy diplomacy. Sponsor: Rep. Heather Wilson (R-NM)

H.R. 3236: Energy Efficiency Improvement Act of 2007. This bill intends to encourage greater energy efficiency throughout the U.S. economy. Among other provisions, the bill requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish a Recoverable Waste-Energy Inventory Program, including a Registry of Waste-energy Sources, and to include in the Registry the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings that might be achieved with recovery of the waste energy from all sources and sites listed therein. The bill also, in renaming the Department of Energy's Regional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Application Centers, as Clean Energy Centers, finds that the CHP centers have produced significant climate change benefits and will continue to do so. Sponsor: Rep. Rick Boucher (D-VA) (1 cosponsor) Action: 8/3/2007: Reported by the Committee on Energy and Commerce by a vote of 27-18. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 3237: Smart Grid Facilitation Act of 2007. This bill intends to facilitate and provide Federal leadership for the transition of the Nation's electricity sector to a "smart grid" and to encourage demand-response activities that support and improve the reliability of the grid. Among other provisions, it requires the Administrator of the EPA to issue a report on the environmental attributes and impacts of demand response and smart grid systems, including existing and potential impacts of these systems on air emissions, including carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. It also mandates that electricity purchasers shall be provided direct access to the sources of power provided by their utility, including greenhouse gas emissions associated with each type of generation. Sponsor: Rep. Rick Boucher (D-VA) (1 cosponsor) Action: 8/3/2007: Reported by the Committee on Energy and Commerce by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 3358: Renewing Our Commitment to Safe and Clean Power Act. Among other provisions intended to expand nuclear power generation in the United States, this bill refers to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as one of its purposes. Sponsor: Rep. Fred Upton (R-MI) (1 cosponsor)

S. 761:
America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (America COMPETES) Act. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Energy to establish an Advanced Research Projects authority to overcome the long-term and high-risk technological barriers in the development of energy technologies, including carbon-neutral and carbon sequestration technology. Sponsor: Sen. Harry Reid (D-NV) (69 cosponsors) – Action: 4/25/07: Passed the Senate 88-8. 7/19/07: Incorporated into HR 2272 as an amendment in the nature of a substitute, and passed by unanimous consent. (See summary HR 2272 for further legislative action).

S. 859: Ethanol Infrastructure Expansion Act of 2007. The Act, which requires the Secretary of Energy to "award funds to study the feasibility of constructing dedicated ethanol pipelines to increase the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United States." Among its provisions, the bill cites as one benefit of ethanol that it provides "reduced greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change." Sponsor: Sen. Tom Harkin (D-IA) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1016:
Solar Opportunity and Local Access Rights Act. The Act would "amend the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to promote energy independence and self-sufficiency by providing for the use of net metering by certain small electric energy generation systems," and language in the bill ensures that where applicable, customer-generators will retain ownership and title to any renewable energy or greenhouse gas credits that accrues to their energy generation activities. Sponsor: Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)

S. 1072: Federal Agency Environmental Responsibility Act. Among other provisions, the Act requires the head of each Federal agency to implement sustainable practices within the agency for avoiding or reducing GHG emissions. The bill also directs the Administrator of the General Services Administration to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from Federal buildings through the use of energy efficient light bulbs, requiring that within five years of the bill's enactment, all light bulbs—including those in traffic signals and exterior lights on Federal property—should be replaced by energy-efficient bulbs, and mandating that only energy-efficient bulbs may be used in Federal buildings. The Administrator can make those exceptions deemed necessary, and "energy efficient bulbs" are defined as those with a lumens-per-Watt rating of not less than 30 until January 1, 2018; and for calendar years ending after 2017, a lumens-per-Watt rating of not less than 45. Sponsor: Sen. Ted Stevens (R-AK)

S. 1187: Clean Capitol Act of 2007. This bill requires the Architect of the Capitol to develop a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the Capitol complex, with the goal of achieving carbon neutrality at the complex by December 31, 2020. The bill gives priority to methods which would make the complex more energy efficient and use off-and on-site renewable sources of energy, but allows the purchase of carbon dioxide emission offsets if necessary. Sponsor: Sen. John Kerry (D-MA)

Also see: H.R. 182:, H.R. 670:, H.R. 370:, H.R. 823:, H.R. 1186:, H.R. 1215:,
H.R. 1551:, H.R. 1300:, S.6:, S. 133:, S. 280:, S. 309:, S. 317:, S. 339:,
S. 485:, S. 701:, S. 731:, S. 962:

 

Carbon Sequestration

H.R. 370: Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Promotion Act which would, among other things, promote the use coal to produce liquid fuel for transportation. The Act would provide loan guarantees to facilities which will produce at least 10,000 barrels per day of coal-to-liquid fuel.

H.R. 370: Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Promotion Act which would, among other things, promote the use coal to produce liquid fuel for transportation. The Act would provide loan guarantees to facilities which will produce at least 10,000 barrels per day of coal-to-liquid fuel. Portions of facilities which allow for the capture, transportation, or sequestration of carbon dioxide produced by the coal-to-liquid fuel process are also eligible for loan guarantees.
Sponsor: Rep. Geoff Davis (R-KY) (20 cosponsors)

H.R. 1933:
Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 by authorizing a total of $1.685 billion from 2008 through 2012 for a carbon capture and storage (CCS) research, development, and demonstration program. Among other provisions, the bill directs the Secretary of Energy to carry out a CCS demonstration program using a variety of geologic formations, and includes funds for safety research. Sponsor: Rep. Mark Udall (D-CO) (1 cosponsor) Action: 8/3/07: Reported by Committee on Science and Technology by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 2337:
Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a methodology for assessing the nation's capacity to store carbon dioxide in geologic formations. It also requires the Secretary to conduct an assessment of the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal ecosystems, including estuaries; and to determine the potential for increasing carbon storage in natural ecosystems.

In addition, the bill mandates the creation of the National Resources Management Council on Climate Change to address the impacts of climate change on Federal lands, the ocean environment, and the Federal water infrastructure. It requires the Secretary of the Interior to promulgate a national strategy for assisting wildlife populations and their habitats in adapting to the impacts of global warming. The bill also directs the Secretary of Commerce to develop and implement a national strategy to predict, plan for, and mitigate the impacts on ocean and coastal ecosystems from global warming, relative sea level rise and ocean acidification; and ensure the recovery, resilience, and health of ocean and coastal ecosystems. The bill also authorizes $250 million to establish a National Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System to improve the nation's ability to measure, track, explain, and predict events related directly and indirectly and indirectly to weather and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV) (7 cosponsors) Action: 8/3/07: Reported by the Committee on Natural Resources by a 26-22 vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 2354:
American Fuels Act of 2007. The purpose of this bill is to reduce the dependence of the United States on oil by promoting the use of alternative fuels and new technology. Among other provisions, it amends the definition of alternative diesel fuel in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to include diesel fuel substitutes made from a coal-to-liquid process that provides for the sequestration of carbon emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Peter Visclosky (D-IN)

H.R. 2784:
National Environment and Energy Development Act. This bill would terminate Federal prohibitions on the domestic production of offshore supplies of natural gas, and would dedicate fixed percentages of the resultant royalties for various purposes, including the creation of a Carbon Capture and Sequestration Reserve. Sponsor: Rep. John Peterson (R-PA) (92 cosponsors)

S. 731:
National Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity Assessment Act of 2007. The Act directs the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey, to—within 270 days of the bill's enactment—develop a methodology for conducting a national assessment of the geological storage capacity for carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Sen. Ken Salazar (D-CO) (12 cosponsors)

S. 962: Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act would "amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to reauthorize and improve the carbon capture and storage research, development, and demonstration program of the Department of Energy," including authorizing $315 million for such research over fiscal years 2007-2009. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) (14 cosponsors)

S. 1523: To amend the Clean Air Act to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from the Capitol power plant. This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to require the Administrator of the EPA to establish a competitive grant demonstration program for projects to capture and store or use the carbon dioxide emitted from the Capitol power plant as a result of burning coal. Sponsor: Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) (4 cosponsors)

See also: H.R. 370:, H.R. 931:, H.R. 1186:, H.R. 1300:, S. 133:, S. 155:,
S. 309:, S. 761:, S. 919:, S. 1007:

 

Tax Incentives

H.R. 683: Investment in Energy Independence Act of 2006. The Act would provide income tax credits for investment in coal-to-liquid fuel, biomass, and oil shale energy projects. Investments in facilities which allow for the capture, transportation, or sequestration of carbon dioxide produced by the coal-to-liquid fuel process are also eligible for tax credits. Sponsor: Rep. Ron Lewis (R-KY) (11 cosponsors)

H.R. 683: Investment in Energy Independence Act of 2006. The Act would provide income tax credits for investment in coal-to-liquid fuel, biomass, and oil shale energy projects. Investments in facilities which allow for the capture, transportation, or sequestration of carbon dioxide produced by the coal-to-liquid fuel process are also eligible for tax credits. Sponsor: Rep. Ron Lewis (R-KY) (11 cosponsors)

H.R. 1451: New Options Petroleum Energy Conservation Act of 2007. The purpose of the bill is to "provide incentives to reduce dependence on foreign oil," and includes a Climate Neutral Combustion Credit among other incentives for investing in renewable and alternative fuels and sources of energy. Sponsor: Rep. Dan Lungren (R-CA) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 2652: Generating Renewable Energy and Encouraging Novel Technologies Act of 2007. This bill amends various provisions of the Internal Revenue Code with measures intended to generate renewable energy and encourage novel technologies related to the production of energy. Among other provisions, the bill adds enhanced oil recovery projects which enable the capture or sequestration of carbon dioxide produced at a coal-to-liquid fuel facility to those which are eligible for tax credits. Sponsor: Rep. Phil English (R-PA)

H.R. 2776:
Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Tax Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill expands and extends tax credits and deductions for renewable energy, energy efficient appliance credit for a variety of appliances produced after 2007, energy-efficient commercial buildings deduction for five years (through December 31, 2013), and allows electric utilities to depreciate smart electric meters over a five year period. In addition, the bill orders the Secretary of the Treasury and the National Academy of Sciences to review the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to identify the types of and specific tax provisions that have the largest effects on carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and to estimate the magnitude of those effects. Sponsor: Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) (21 cosponsors) Action: 6/20/2007: Reported by the Committee on Ways and Means by a vote of 24-16. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 3089: No More Excuses Energy Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill amends the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish a tax credit for carbon dioxide captured from industrial sources and permanently sequestered as a tertiary injectant in enhanced oil and natural gas recovery. Sponsor: Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-TX) (2 cosponsors)

S. 701:
Strategic Energy Fund Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a temporary oil profit fee, and use the profits of this fee to create and expand energy tax incentives, including incentives for and coal-to-liquid projects that practice carbon capture and sequestration. Sponsor: Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY)

S.1370: Clean Energy Investment Assurance Act of 2007. This bill contains a variety of amendments to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 intended to ensure investment and innovation in clean energy technologies. Among other provisions, it extends the renewable electricity production credit to those facilities which use zero-carbon emissions resources to produce electricity.Sponsor: Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA) (3 cosponsors)

S. 1508: Clean Energy Production Tax Incentives Act of 2007. This bill amends various provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to promote investment in a variety of energy technologies through the creation, expansion and extension of certain tax credits. Among other provisions, the bill extends the tax credit for qualifying advanced clean coal projects, and instructs the Secretary of Energy to give high priority to projects that incorporate capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), including CO2 enhanced oil recovery. It also establishes a credit for clean coal energy bonds, a tax credit for the capture and storage or use of CO2 , and CO2 capture bonds. Sponsor: Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-ND)

S. 1617:
Fuel Reduction using Electrons to End Dependence On the Mid-East (FREEDOM) Act of 2007. Among other provisions amending the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to promote the development and use of plug-in electric drive motor vehicles, this bill would establish a utility rebate for customers purchasing such vehicles. The quantity of the rebate would be inversely proportional to the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by the taxpayer's electric utility. Sponsor: Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) (5 cosponsors)

 

Transportation Emissions

H.R. 182: TEAM up for Energy Independence Act which would, among other things, impose an excise tax on automobiles sold in the United States that are not alternative fueled automobiles, in an attempt to make alternative fuels more available to the public. Starting in 2007 there would be a 5% tax that doubles every year until 2011.

H.R. 182: TEAM up for Energy Independence Act which would, among other things, impose an excise tax on automobiles sold in the United States that are not alternative fueled automobiles, in an attempt to make alternative fuels more available to the public. Starting in 2007 there would be a 5% tax that doubles every year until 2011. The proceeds of this tax would be deposited in a trust fund and used to renovate gas stations so that they can dispense alternative fuels. The bill's Findings section states that "climate change threatens the security and stability of our planet," and includes additional language concerning carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)

H.R. 670
: Dependence Reduction through Innovation in Vehicles and Energy (DRIVE) Act. The Act is designed to "promote the national security and stability of the United States economy by reducing the dependence of the United States on foreign oil through the use of alternative fuels and new vehicle technologies." Among other provisions, the bill requires the Secretary of Energy to conduct programs of research, development, demonstration and commercial application for, and to provide research grants for, a variety of advanced transportation technologies, including electric drive transportation technology; and includes the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as a goal of these technologies. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (79 cosponsors)

H.R. 1215: A bill to authorize the Secretary of Energy to make certain loan guarantees for advanced conservation and fuel efficiency motor vehicle technology projects that reduce the emissions of one or more greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Rogers (R-MI)

H.R. 1300: Program for Real Energy Security (PROGRESS) Act. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant program to state and local governments and transportation authorities for the procuring and testing of plug-in hybrid vehicles, with the displacement of greenhouse gas emissions as a criterion for selection. The Act also authorizes the Department of Defense to enter into long-term contracts to procure biobased and unconventional fuel, including coal-to-liquid fuel from facilities that employ carbon capture and sequestration technology. Sponsor: Rep. Steny Hoyer (D-MD) (108 cosponsors)

H.R. 1915:
American Automobile Industry Promotion Act of 2007. This bill directs the Secretary of Energy to, in conjunction with the National Academy of Sciences, conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for electric drive transportation technology, including control systems which optimized for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, among other purposes. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Castle (R-DE) (1 cosponsor)

H.R.1945
: Energy for Our Future Act. This bill contains various provisions intended to improve the energy efficiency of the United States, including the repeal of preemption of state law relating to automobile fuel economy standards. Also included is the Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Act of 2007, which would direct the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant pilot demonstration program for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and sets the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from these vehicles as as as a criteria for grant application. An applicant receiving the grant will be awarded no more than $10-million in Federal assistance for the period encompassing fiscal years 2008-2012. Sponsor: Rep. Christopher Shays (R-CT) (15 cosponsors)

H.R.2079
: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Act of 2007. This bill would direct the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant pilot demonstration program for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and sets the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from these vehicles as a criteria for grant application. An applicant receiving the grant will be awarded no more than $10 million in Federal assistance for the period encompassing fiscal years 2008-2012. Sponsor: Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX) (7 cosponsors)

H.R. 2112
: Purchasing Low-Emission Vehicles for Use in Government (PLUG) Act. This bill would amend the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to require the Federal Government to acquire not fewer than 50,000 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for inclusion in the federal fleet within five years after the Secretary of Energy deems such vehicles "commercially available." The bill cites Department of Energy finding that hybrid vehicles produce fewer greenhouse gases than conventional vehicles. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Israel (D-NY) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 2208:
Coal Liquid Fuel Act. This bill amends the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to establish standby loans with not more than six coal-to-liquid fuels (CTL) projects Under these agreements, the Secretary will make a direct loan to the qualifying CTL project, and set a cap price and minimum price for the primary term of the agreement. Qualifying projects are those which convert coal to one or more liquid or gaseous transportation fuels; or not more than one project at a facility that converts petroleum refinery waste products, including pet-coke, into one or more liquids or gaseous transportation fuels—and which demonstrates the capture and sequestration or disposal or use of the carbon dioxide (CO2)produced in the conversion process, and that produces fuel with life cycle CO2 emissions at or below the average life cycle CO2 emissions for the same type of fuel produced at traditional petroleum-based facilities with similar annual capacities. Sponsor: Rep. Richard Boucher (D-VA) (15 cosponsors)

H.R. 2215:
To provide a reduction in the aggregate greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy consumed by vehicles and aircraft, and for other purposes. This bill amends the Clean Air Act by directing the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to, no later than January 1, 2010, promulgate low carbon fuel performance standards for fuels and other sources of energy used to propel vehicles and aircraft. The low carbon fuel performance standards will also include lifecycle GHG emission calculations. Sponsor: Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) (19 cosponsors)

H.R. 2426:
Ethanol Infrastructure Expansion Act of 2007. This bill, among other purposes, requires the Secretary of Energy to award funds to study the feasibility of constructing dedicated ethanol pipelines, and to address technical factors that prevent transportation of ethanol in existing pipelines. Among other provisions, it cites reduced greenhouse gas emissions as a public health benefit of ethanol. Sponsor: Rep. Leonard Boswell (D-IA) (5 cosponsors)

H.R. 2594:
Safe and Fuel Efficient Driving Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the bill finds that "the United States has an environmental interest in reducing our emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases linked to climate change." Sponsor: Rep. Joe Knollenberg (R-MI)

H.R. 2701:
Transportation Energy Security and Climate Change Mitigation Act of 2007. This bill, among other provisions, mandates the establishment of a Center for Climate Change and Environment within the Department of Transportation, which would plan, coordinate, and implement department-wide initiatives and research to reduce transportation-related energy use, mitigate the effects of climate change, and address the impacts of climate change on transportation and infrastructure. The bill also directs the Administrator of the EPA to have the National Academy of Sciences identify the potential impacts of climate change on the nation's water resources, watersheds, and water quality. It also directs the Secretary of the Army to ensure that water resources projects and studies carried out by the Army Corps of Engineers account for potential effects of climate change; and directs the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to conduct a study of the increase in demand for the Agency's services due to natural disasters that can be reasonably attributed to climate change. The bill also contains numerous provisions intended to make public and commercial transportation, and federal buildings, more energy-efficient. Sponsor: Rep. James Oberstar (D-MN) (15 cosponsors) Action: 6/20/07 Reported out of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure by voice vote. 8/4/07: Incorporated into H.R. 3221, which passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 2858: To promote the production and use of ethanol. Among other provisions, this bill amends the Petroleum Practices Act to require the Secretary of Energy to establish a grant program for research into developing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock to replace corn; and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ethanol production is a stated goal of the program. Sponsor: Rep. Lee Terry (R-NE)

H.R. 2881: FAA Reauthorization Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill directs the Secretary of Transportation to establish a pilot program to carry out not more than 6 environmental mitigation demonstration projects at public-use airports, and makes measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions a criteria of project selection. The bill also requires the Administrator of the FAA to establish a program to develop and certify CLEEN (Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise) engine and airframe technology, and mandates as one performance objective the development, by September 30, 2015, of certifiable aircraft technology that reduces GHG emissions by increasing aircraft fuel efficiency by 25% relative to 1997 subsonic jet aircraft technology. Sponsor: Rep. James Oberstar (D-MN) (33 cosponsors) Action: 6/28/07: Reported by the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure by voice vote. 9/20/07: Passed the House by 267-151.

H.R. 2927: To increase the corporate average fuel economy standards for automobiles, to promote the domestic development and production of advanced technology vehicles, and for other purposes. Among a variety of provisions intended to increase corporate average fuel economy standards, this bill directs the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe average fuel economy standards expressed in terms of average miles per gallon of fuel and in terms of average grams per mile of CO2 emissions. The bill also gives the Secretary the authority to prescribe separate standards for different classes of passenger automobiles based on attributes related to fuel economy, including carbon efficiency. Sponsor: Rep. Baron Hill (D-IN) (162 cosponsors)

H.R. 3118: To promote the production and use of ethanol. Among other provisions, this bill amends the Petroleum Practices Act to require the Secretary of Energy to establish a grant program for research into developing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock to supplement corn; and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ethanol production is a stated goal of the program. This bill is similar to H.R. 2858, also sponsored by Rep. Terry, except that instead of replacing corn with sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock, this bill intends to supplement corn with sweet sorghum. Sponsor: Rep. Lee Terry (R-NE)

S. 133:
American Fuels Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act amends the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7545) by expanding the definition of alternative diesel fuel to include a variety of biodiesel sources, as well as diesel manufactured by a coal-to-liquid fuel process that provides for carbon capture and sequestration. Sponsor: Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL) (3 cosponsors)

S. 339: Dependence Reduction through Innovation in Vehicles and Energy (DRIVE) Act. Among other provisions designed to increase the use of alternative fuels and new technology, the Act directs the Secretary of Energy to include greenhouse gas reduction capability in a "research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program for electric drive transportation technology and engine dominant hybrid vehicle technology."
Sponsor: Sen. Evan Bayh (D-IN) (24 cosponsors)

S. 1073: Clean Fuels and Vehicles Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act would amend the Clean Air Act to promote the use of fuels with low lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, establish a greenhouse gas performance standard for motor vehicle fuels, and require a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. The bill directs the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to "establish a credit trading program to address the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from fuels available for use in motor vehicles." The Administrator is also required to mandate that major producers, refiners, or importers of said fuels reduce the average lifecycle GHG emissions per unit of energy delivered to motor vehicles to 3 percent below the fuel emissions baseline (to be determined by the Administrator) for 2015, with steady reductions thereafter. Fuel providers can earn tradable credits for achieving lifecycle emissions reductions greater than those required. In addition, the bill requires the Administrator to, by 2009, determine a vehicle GHG emissions baseline, based on the aggregate quantity and variety of new automobiles sold in the U.S. in model year 2002; and further requires the Administrator to mandate reductions in GHG emissions per vehicle mile for model years starting in 2015. Sponsor: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) (2 cosponsors)

S.1297: Advanced Clean Fuels Act of 2007. This bill amends the Clean Air Act with the intent of promoting advanced clean fuels. Among other provisions, it directs the Administrator of the EPA to: by Jan. 1, 2010, establish a methodology for use in determining the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuel in commerce, including renewable fuels; to require each fuel provider to reduce the average life-cycle GHG emissions per unit of energy of the aggregate quantity of transportation fuel. It also instructs the Administrator to require renewable fuel and advanced clean fuel volume standards for transportation fuels. The bill makes reduced lifecycle (GHG) emissions compared to conventional fuels part of the definition of renewable and advanced clean fuels. Sponsor: Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) (2 cosponsors)

S. 1321: Energy Savings Act of 2007. The purpose of this bill is to enhance the energy security of the United States by promoting biofuels, energy efficiency, and carbon capture and storage. Among other provisions, it directs the President to establish a renewable fuels standard, which includes a requirement that biofuels facilities built after enactment achieve at least a 20% reduction in life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to gasoline. The bill also directs the Secretary of Energy to establish competitive grant programs for electric drive vehicles and for near-term oil-saving transportation projects, and makes GHG emissions reductions and reporting a criteria for project selection. In addition, the bill includes a carbon capture and storage (CCS) research, development, and demonstration title which, among other things, requires the Secretary of Energy to carry out a demonstration of large-scale carbon dioxide capture from a gasification facility selected by the Secretary. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) Action: 5/7/07: Reported by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources by a vote of 20-8. 6/21/07: Incorporated into H.R. 6, which passed the Senate by 65-27.

S. 1324: National Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Act of 2007. This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to expand the renewable fuel standard, and to require the Administrator of the EPA to establish a low-carbon fuel standard, as well as an ultra-low carbon fuel standard, for transportation fuels. Sponsor: Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL) (2 cosponsors)

S. 1419: Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. This bill contains a number of proposals intended to promote renewable fuels and energy efficiency, among other purposes. Its titles addressing biofuels, energy efficiency promotion, and carbon capture and storage are similar to those included in S. 1321. In addition, the bill gives the Secretary of Transportation the authority to raise fuel economy standards, and directs the Secretary to consider greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels as a criteria when deciding whether and by how much to raise fuel economy standards. Sponsor: Sen. Harry Reid (D-NV)


Also see: S. 309:, H.R. 931:

 

Agriculture

H.R. 1551: Healthy Farms, Foods, and Fuels Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Agriculture to consider the extent of proposed greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when awarding grants, loans, and loan guarantees for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. The Act also reauthorizes funds for research conducted through consortium for agricultural soils mitigation of GHGs.

H.R. 1551: Healthy Farms, Foods, and Fuels Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act directs the Secretary of Agriculture to consider the extent of proposed greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when awarding grants, loans, and loan guarantees for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. The Act also reauthorizes funds for research conducted through consortium for agricultural soils mitigation of GHGs. Sponsor: Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI) (100 cosponsors)

H.R. 1600:
Equitable Agriculture Today for a Healthy America Act (EAT Healthy America Act). Among other provisions, the Act amends the Food Security Act of 1985 to include conservation innovation grants for alternative energy projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in farm operations. Sponsor: Rep. Dennis Cardoza (D-CA) (87 cosponsors)

H.R. 2144:
Farm, Nutrition, and Community Investment Act of 2007. Among other provisions, this bill would amend the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 by directing the Secretary of Agriculture to provide grants to certain universities in order to conduct research on carbon cycle, renewable energy, and climate change; and the bill authorizes $15 million a year for fiscal years 2008 through 2013 for the purpose. The bill also amends the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 to establish grants for cellulosic ethanol projects, a farm and ranch energy efficiency rebate program, and authorizes funds for research in alternative uses for biofuel byproducts. In addition, the bill amends the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to direct each electric utility to make available upon request net metering to any electric consumer that the electric utility serves. Sponsor: Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) (31 cosponsors)

H.R. 2154:
Rural Energy for America Act of 2007. This bill, in expanding and extending the renewable energy systems and energy improvements program of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 through 2012, cites the existing program's success in reducing CO2 emissions by more that 1.1 million tons annually. Sponsor: Rep. Stephanie Herseth (D-SD) (6 cosponsors)

H.R. 2218
:
Biofuels Energy Independence Act of 2007. This bill would create a Biofuels Feedstocks Energy Reserve, and authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to make and guarantee loans for the production, distribution, development, and storage of biofuels. It cites the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional gasoline as a benefit of the use of grain-based and biomass ethanol. Sponsor: Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-OH)

H.R. 2401: NOURISH Act of 2007. This bill, among other provisions, amends the Food Security Act of 1985 to add alternative energy projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reliance on fossil fuels in farm operations to those projects eligible for Conservation Innovation Grants. Sponsor: Rep. Joe Baca (D-CA) (33 cosponsors)

H.R. 2428: Biofuels Research Initiative Act of 2007. This bill amends the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to provide grants to consortiums of land grant universities for bioenergy and biomass research; and one of the qualifying criteria for such grants is environmental assessment, including a climate change assessment of bioenergy production systems. Sponsor: Rep. Chet Edwards (D-TX)

H.R. 2720:
FARM 21 Act of 2007. Among other purposes, this bill amends the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 with the purpose of increasing energy programs of the Department of Agriculture. Among other provisions, it would extend biorefinery grants and loans to eligible projects, and includes as a criteria for selection the extent to which projects reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI) (21 cosponsors)

S. 919:
Healthy Farms, Foods, and Fuels Act of 2007. Among other provisions, the Act includes support for development of biorefineries, directing the Secretary of Agriculture to consider—when making award grants, loans and loans guarantees for biorefinery and methane digester projects—the extent to which projects reduce greenhouse gas emissions, among other criteria. Sponsor: Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ) (5 cosponsors)

S. 1422: Farm Risk Management Act for the 21st Century. Among other provisions intended to assist in the stabilization of farm income, and to promote investment in value-added farms as well as higher levels of environmental stewardship, this bill would amend the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to make grants, loans, and loan guarantees for biorefinery development projects. The bill requires the Secretary to develop goals for greenhouse gas reductions to be achieved by such projects, and to considers such goal as criteria when selecting which projects will receive funds. Sponsor: Sen. Richard G. Lugar (R-IN)

 

Buildings

H.R. 3031: Advanced Design in Energy for Living Efficiently Act of 2007. Among other provisions intended to promote the construction of green buildings in the United States, this bill requires the National Institute of Building Sciences to establish standards for the construction of new commercial and residential buildings that will reduce CO2 emissions, compared to emissions from similar buildings in 2003, by 40% by 2010 and by 70% by 2020. Provisions in this bill are included in H.R. 2809, also sponsored by Rep. Inslee. Sponsor: Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) (4 cosponsors)

 

Climate Science Research

H.R. 21: Oceans Conservation, Education, and National Strategy for the 21st Century Act, which would, among other things, establish a national policy for America's oceans, strengthen the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and establish a national and regional ocean governance structure. The bill cites global climate change as a major threat to marine ecosystem health. Sponsor: Rep.

H.R. 21: Oceans Conservation, Education, and National Strategy for the 21st Century Act, which would, among other things, establish a national policy for America's oceans, strengthen the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and establish a national and regional ocean governance structure. The bill cites global climate change as a major threat to marine ecosystem health. Sponsor: Rep. Sam Farr (D-CA) (3 cosponsors)

H.R. 250: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Act which would, among other things, provide funding to study the earth's climate and enhance our ability to predict and respond to climate variability and change.
Sponsor: Rep. Vernon Ehlers (R-MI) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 906: Global Change Research and Data Management Act of 2007. The Act directs the President to "establish an interagency committee to ensure cooperation and coordination of all Federal research activities" pertaining to human-induced or natural changes in the global environment, including global climate change.
Sponsor: Rep. Mark Udall (D-CO) (1 cosponsor)

H.R. 1507
: Salmon Economic Analysis and Planning Act. Among other provisions, the bill directs the Secretary of Commerce and the National Academy of Sciences to conduct scientific analysis of Federal salmon protection restoration and recovery actions, and to include in that analysis an identification of the effect of global climate change on ocean conditions and hydrological conditions in the Snake and Columbia Rivers and their salmon and steelhead-bearing tributaries; as well as an examination of how such global climate change effects might affect the Federal recovery actions of naturally spawning, wild salmon and steelhead populations. Sponsor: Rep. Jim McDermott (D-MA) (65 cosponsors)

H.R. 1728: Global Warming Education Act. The Act would authorize that National Science Foundation to establish a Global Warming Education Program. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Honda (D-CA) (17 cosponsors)

H.R. 1867: National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2007. In authorizing appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for FY 2008, this bill, among other provisions, instructs the Director of the NSF to support activities to create informal educational materials, exhibits, and multimedia presentations relevant to global warming, climate science and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies. The bill also instructs the Director to support the development of such materials for K-12 education, as part of Discovery Research K-12 activities. Sponsor: Rep. Brian Baird (D-WA) (21 cosponsors) Action: 5/2/07, Passed the House, 399-17.

H.R. 1975
: Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act. Among other purposes, this bill designates certain National Forest System, National Park System, and Bureau of Land Management-administered public lands as components of a National Wilderness Preservation System, a National Wild and Scenic River System, and National Wildland Restoration and Recovery Areas. In the title establishing the National Wildland Restoration and Recovery System, the bill finds that "Recovery activities are required to reverse severe damage to native fish and wildlife populations and water quality in these areas and to facilitate the dispersal of species in response to climate change," and mandates that "All lands within the Recovery System shall be managed so as to restore their native vegetative cover and reduce or eliminate invasive non-native species, facilitate native species diversity to the extent possible with climate change…" Sponsor: Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (110 cosponsors)

Also see: S. 280:

 

Adaptation

H.R. 2327: Polar Bear Protection Act of 2007. This bill seeks to repeal an exemption in the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 which allows the importation of sport-hunted polar bear trophies from Canada, and cites the stress that polar bear populations are under due to climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) (75 cosponsors)

H.R. 2338: Global Warming Wildlife Survival Act. Among other provisions, this bill states that it is the policy of the Federal Government to assist wildlife populations in adapting to and surviving the effects of global warming. The bill directs the Secretary of the Interior to, within two years of enactment, promulgate a national strategy for mitigating the impacts of global warming on wildlife populations in the United States. It also directs the Secretary to establish the National Global Warming and Wildlife Science Center within the United States Geological Survey. Sponsor: Rep. Norm Dicks (D-WA) (2 cosponsors)

S. 1579: Coastal Zone Enhancement Reauthorization Act of 2007. Among other provisions amending the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, this bill authorizes coastal states, in preparing and carrying out its coastal management, to conduct assessments, mapping, modeling, and forecasting of the effects of climate change on the coastal zone. Sponsor: Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-ME) (2 cosponsors) S. 1581: Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring (FOARAM) Act of 2007. This bill would establish an Interagency Committee on Ocean Acidification whose role is to oversee the creation of a plan designed to improve the understanding of the role of increased ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, including the effects of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide on ocean chemistry. In its finding section, the bill cites the oceans' role in helping mitigate the effects of global warming by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) (1 cosponsor)

S. 1696: Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2008. Among other provisions, this bill appropriates $10 million to the EPA for the purpose of providing competitive grants for research into, among other purposes, developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In addition, the bill states the sense of the Senate Appropriations Committee that "a robust climate change management research program will be essential for the Forest Service to sustain forest health and biodiversity and protect a wide range of natural resources," and appropriates $2.5 million to expand the Forest Service's climate science research program; the Committee directs the agency to use these funds to develop forest management techniques that adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change. The bill also appropriates $2.275 to the EPA to fund research activities in support of future rulemaking activities on greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation. It also appropriates $2 million to the EPA to use its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to develop and publish a rule requiring mandatory reporting of GHG emissions above appropriate thresholds in all sectors of the economy; the bill further directs the EPA to publish a final rule no later than December 31, 2008, and to include in its rule reporting of emissions resulting from upstream production and downstream sources. Sponsor: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) Action: 6/26/07: Reported by the Senate Committee on Appropriations by 29-0.

 

Energy Policy

H.R. 3221 (House Energy Bill): New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security, and Consumer Protection Act. This is the House of Representatives' energy bill for 2007. The following summary includes only the provisions most pertinent to climate change.

H.R. 3221 (House Energy Bill): New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security, and Consumer Protection Act. This is the House of Representatives' energy bill for 2007. The following summary includes only the provisions most pertinent to climate change.

H.R. 3221 (House Energy Bill): New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security, and Consumer Protection Act. This is the House of Representatives' energy bill for 2007. The following summary includes only the provisions most pertinent to climate change.

  • Among other provisions, the bill makes a Congressional declaration that it shall be United States policy to engage in international climate negotiations with the objective of creating a new instrument that will come into force by the time that the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012. Such an instrument will, at a minimum, require binding mitigation commitments from all major emitting countries. The title also mandates the creation of an Office on Global Climate Change within the State Department.
  • The bill also authorizes funds to promote research in solar energy, biofuels, marine renewable energy, and geothermal energy, and authorizes funds for carbon capture and storage research, development, and demonstration.
  • In addition, it directs the President to "establish an interagency committee to ensure cooperation and coordination of all Federal research activities" pertaining to human-induced or natural changes in the global environment, including global climate change.
  • The bill contains provisions which direct each federal agency to annually inventory and report its GHG emissions, and requires the EPA to promulgate annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the total emissions of all agencies taken as a whole, for each fiscal year from 2010 through 2050.
  • The bill also sets GHG emissions standards for federal vehicle fleets, based on the California Code of Regulations, and requires the Secretary of Energy to establish new efficiency standards for federal buildings.
  • The bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a methodology for assessing the nation's capacity to store carbon dioxide in geologic formations. It also requires the Secretary to conduct an assessment of the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal ecosystems, including estuaries; and to determine the potential for increasing carbon storage in natural ecosystems.
  • It also requires the Secretary of the Interior to create the National Resources Management Council on Climate Change to address the impacts of climate change on Federal lands, the ocean environment, and the Federal water infrastructure. It requires the Secretary to promulgate a national strategy for assisting wildlife populations and their habitats in adapting to the impacts of global warming. The title also directs the Secretary of Commerce to develop and implement a national strategy to predict, plan for, and mitigate the impacts on ocean and coastal ecosystems from global warming, relative sea level rise and ocean acidification; and ensure the recovery, resilience, and health of ocean and coastal ecosystems.
  • The title also authorizes $250 million to establish a National Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System to improve the nation's ability to measure, track, explain, and predict events related directly and indirectly and indirectly to weather and climate change.
  • The Transportation and Infrastructure section of this bill, among other provisions, mandates the establishment of a Center for Climate Change and Environment within the Department of Transportation, which would plan, coordinate, and implement department-wide initiatives and research to reduce transportation-related energy use, mitigate the effects of climate change, and address the impacts of climate change on transportation and infrastructure. The title also directs Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the EPA to report to Congress on low-cost solutions to reducing congestion and transportation-related energy use and mitigating the effects of climate change.
  • The Energy and Commerce section of this bill contains a number of energy efficiency provisions, among them: improving the schedule for consensus standards, updating appliance test procedures, new efficiency standards for lighting, residential boilers, industrial motors, washing machines, and dishwashers. The title also establishes new efficiency standards for power supplies and transformers for consumer electronic equipment.
  • · In addition, the bill mandates the creation of an Office of High-Performance Green Buildings, and sets out increased efficiency standards for federal buildings, as well as increased efficiency standards for state residential and commercial building codes. It also authorizes grants to support state implementation of green building codes.
  • The bill also provides technical assistance and a revolving fund for implementing combined heat and power (CHP) systems and sustainable energy infrastructure. It contains a number of provisions promoting creation of a Smart Grid, and mandates the promulgation of a National Action Plan for Demand Response.
  • The tax provisions of this bill expand and extend tax credits and deductions for renewable energy, energy efficient appliance credit for a variety of appliances produced after 2007, energy-efficient commercial buildings deduction for five years (through December 31, 2013), and allows electric utilities to depreciate smart electric meters over a five year period. In addition, the bill orders the Secretary of the Treasury and the National Academy of Sciences to review the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to identify the types of and specific tax provisions that have the largest effects on carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and to estimate the magnitude of those effects.
  • The bill also establishes a Federal Renewable Portfolio Standard, which would require an increasing percentage of base electricity supply generated by retail electric suppliers to be generated from renewable energy sources. Starting in 2010, 2.75% of annual base electricity supply must be generated from renewable energy sources, rising to 15% by 2020 and maintained at 15% until 2039. Energy resources considered renewable by are solar (including solar water heating), wind, ocean, tidal, geothermal energy, biomass, landfill gas, or incremental hydropower.

Sponsor: Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) (18 cosponsors) Action:
8/4/2007: passed the House by 241-172.

H.R. 6 (Senate Energy Bill): Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. This is the omnibus Senate energy bill for 2007. It contains a variety of provisions intended to promote the development and deployment of biofuels, energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, environmentally sustainable public buildings, and includes a measure to increase the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard. This summary will focus on those provisions most directly relevant to climate change.

  • Among other provisions, the bill establishes a renewable fuel standard, to reach 36 billion gallons by 2022, with 21 billion of those gallons to be from advanced biofuels. The bill mandates that renewable fuels produced from facilities that commence operations after enactment shall achieve at least 20% reduction in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to gasoline. The bill also directs the Presidnet to establish criteria for a system of voluntary labeling of renewable fuels based on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The bill directs the President to establish a program to provide grants for research support to facilitate the development of sustainable markets and technologies to use woody biomass and other low carbon fuels, including research into methods of assessing and certifying the impacts of low-carbon fuels with respect to reductions in lifecycle GHG emissions, among other impacts.
  • The bill also directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a grant program to encourage the production of advanced biofuels. It requires the Secretary to award grants to the proposals for advanced biofuels with the greatest reduction in lifecycle GHG emissions compared to the comparable vehicle fuel lifecycle emissions in calendar year 2007, with at least a 50% such reduction needed to be eligible.
  • The bill amends the Clean Air Act to direct the Administrator of the EPA to work with the EPA to conduct 2 studies on the effects of increased domestic use of renewable fuels under this act, including an assessment and quantification of significant changes in GHG emissions, among others.
  • Among other provisions, the bill directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct an applied research program for plug-in electric drive vehicle technology, including development of control systems optimized for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; it also directs the Secretary to establish a competitive program to provide grants for demonstrations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. As part of the criteria, applicants are required to record GHG emissions.
  • The bill also amends the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to establish an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Worker Training. It directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant program for States to administer renewable energy and energy efficiency workforce development programs, and requires the Secretary to give priority to those States whose programs will be in line with meeting national and State goals for reducing GHG emissions, among other goals.
  • The bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a national assessment of the quantity of carbon stored in and released from terrestrial ecosystems, including from human-caused and natural fires, and the annual flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems. As part of the assessment, the Secretary must determine the processes that control the flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems; estimate the potential for increasing carbon sequestration in natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems; develop near-term and long-term adaptation strategies or mitigation strategies that can be employed to enhance the sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, to reduce emissions of GHGs, and to adapt to climate change.
  • The bill also requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a method for measuring, monitoring, quantifying, and monetizing covered GHG emissions and reductions, including methods for allocating and managing offsets or credits.
  • The bill directs the Secretary of Transportation to increase Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations to achieve a combined standard for passenger cars and light trucks of at least 35 miles per gallon by 2020. For model years 2021 through 2031, the Secretary would have to establish the "maximum feasible" standard for the fleet. In establishing the maximum feasible standard, the bill directs the Secretary to consider the emissions of GHGs over the lifecycle of the fuel and the resulting costs to human health, the economy, and the environment.
  • The bill amends the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to establish a program to promote and fund carbon capture and storage research, development, and demonstration. It authorizes a total of $1.425 billion for various of activities related to carbon capture and storage, including: fundamental science and engineering research; field testing of carbon dioxide sequestration in operating and depleted oil and gas fields, and geological formations including saline formations and unmineable coal seams; not less than 7 large-volume sequestration tests involving at least 1 million tons of carbon dioxide per year in a diversity of geological formations across the United States; and an assessment of the national capacity for carbon dioxide storage. The bill also directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant program for the demonstration of carbon capture and storage from industrial sources.
  • The bill also requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish a competitive grant demonstration program for projects to capture and store or use the carbon dioxide emitted from the Capitol power plant as a result of burning coal.
  • In addition, the bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a national assessment of the quantity of carbon stored in and released from terrestrial ecosystems, including from human-caused and natural fires, and the annual flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems. As part of the assessment, the Secretary must determine the processes that control the flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems; estimate the potential for increasing carbon sequestration in natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems; develop near-term and long-term adaptation strategies or mitigation strategies that can be employed to enhance the sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, to reduce emissions of GHGs, and to adapt to climate change.
  • The bill also requires the Secretary of Commerce to establish within NOAA a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change, and authorizes up to $10 million between 2009 and 2014.
  • Finally, the bill expresses the sense of Congress that "[d]evelopment of renewable energy through sustainable practices will help lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and enhance international development.

Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV) (198 cosponsors) Action: 1/18/07: Passed the House by 264-163. 6/21/08: Passed the Senate by 62-32.

H.R. 6 (Energy Bill as passed into law): Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. This is the final energy bill that was produced after negotiation among the White House, Senate, and House of Representatives. It incorporates elements of both H.R. 3221 and H.R. 6.

  • Among other provisions, the bill establishes a renewable fuel standard, to reach 36 billion gallons by 2022, with 21 billion of those gallons to be from advanced biofuels. The bill mandates that renewable fuels produced from facilities that commence operations after enactment shall achieve at least 20% reduction in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to gasoline. The bill also directs the Presidnet to establish criteria for a system of voluntary labeling of renewable fuels based on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. 
  • The bill directs the Secretary of Transportation to increase Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations to achieve a combined standard for passenger cars and light trucks of at least 35 miles per gallon by 2020. For model years 2021 through 2031, the Secretary would have to establish the "maximum feasible" standard for the fleet. In establishing the maximum feasible standard, the bill directs the Secretary to consider the emissions of GHGs over the lifecycle of the fuel and the resulting costs to human health, the economy, and the environment. 
  • The bill also authorizes funds to promote research in solar energy, biofuels, marine renewable energy, and geothermal energy, and authorizes funds for carbon capture and storage research, development, and demonstration. 
  • The bill contains provisions which direct each federal agency to annually inventory and report its GHG emissions, and requires the EPA to promulgate annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the total emissions of all agencies taken as a whole, for each fiscal year from 2010 through 2050. 
  • The bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a methodology for assessing the nation's capacity to store carbon dioxide in geologic formations. It also requires the Secretary to conduct an assessment of the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal ecosystems, including estuaries; and to determine the potential for increasing carbon storage in natural ecosystems. 
  • The Transportation and Infrastructure section of this bill, among other provisions, mandates the establishment of a Center for Climate Change and Environment within the Department of Transportation, which would plan, coordinate, and implement department-wide initiatives and research to reduce transportation-related energy use, mitigate the effects of climate change, and address the impacts of climate change on transportation and infrastructure. 
  • The Energy and Commerce section of this bill contains a number of energy efficiency provisions, among them: improving the schedule for consensus standards, updating appliance test procedures, new efficiency standards for lighting, residential boilers, industrial motors, washing machines, and dishwashers. The title also establishes new efficiency standards for power supplies and transformers for consumer electronic equipment. 
  • In addition, the bill mandates the creation of an Office of High-Performance Green Buildings, and sets out increased efficiency standards for federal buildings, as well as increased efficiency standards for state residential and commercial building codes. It also authorizes grants to support state implementation of green building codes. 
  • The bill also provides technical assistance and a revolving fund for implementing combined heat and power (CHP) systems and sustainable energy infrastructure. It contains a number of provisions promoting creation of a Smart Grid, and mandates the promulgation of a National Action Plan for Demand Response. 
  • Has some renewable energy stuff (BUT NOT this - The tax provisions of this bill expand and extend tax credits and deductions for renewable energy, energy efficient appliance credit for a variety of appliances produced after 2007, energy-efficient commercial buildings deduction for five years (through December 31, 2013), and allows electric utilities to depreciate smart electric meters over a five year period. In addition, the bill orders the Secretary of the Treasury and the National Academy of Sciences to review the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to identify the types of and specific tax provisions that have the largest effects on carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and to estimate the magnitude of those effects.)
  • The bill directs the President to establish a program to provide grants for research support to facilitate the development of sustainable markets and technologies to use woody biomass and other low carbon fuels, including research into methods of assessing and certifying the impacts of low-carbon fuels with respect to reductions in lifecycle GHG emissions, among other impacts.
  • The bill also directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a grant program to encourage the production of advanced biofuels. It requires the Secretary to award grants to the proposals for advanced biofuels with the greatest reduction in lifecycle GHG emissions compared to the comparable vehicle fuel lifecycle emissions in calendar year 2007, with at least a 50% such reduction needed to be eligible.
  • The bill amends the Clean Air Act to direct the Administrator of the EPA to work with the EPA to conduct 2 studies on the effects of increased domestic use of renewable fuels under this act, including an assessment and quantification of significant changes in GHG emissions, among others.
  • Among other provisions, the bill directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct an applied research program for plug-in electric drive vehicle technology, including development of control systems optimized for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; it also directs the Secretary to establish a competitive program to provide grants for demonstrations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. As part of the criteria, applicants are required to record GHG emissions.
  • The bill also amends the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to establish an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Worker Training. It directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant program for States to administer renewable energy and energy efficiency workforce development programs, and requires the Secretary to give priority to those States whose programs will be in line with meeting national and State goals for reducing GHG emissions, among other goals.
  • The bill requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a national assessment of the quantity of carbon stored in and released from terrestrial ecosystems, including from human-caused and natural fires, and the annual flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems. As part of the assessment, the Secretary must determine the processes that control the flux of GHGs in and out of terrestrial ecosystems; estimate the potential for increasing carbon sequestration in natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems; develop near-term and long-term adaptation strategies or mitigation strategies that can be employed to enhance the sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, to reduce emissions of GHGs, and to adapt to climate change.
  • The bill also requires the Secretary of the Interior to develop a method for measuring, monitoring, quantifying, and monetizing covered GHG emissions and reductions, including methods for allocating and managing offsets or credits.
  • The bill amends the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to establish a program to promote and fund carbon capture and storage research, development, and demonstration. It authorizes a total of $1.425 billion for various of activities related to carbon capture and storage, including: fundamental science and engineering research; field testing of carbon dioxide sequestration in operating and depleted oil and gas fields, and geological formations including saline formations and unmineable coal seams; not less than 7 large-volume sequestration tests involving at least 1 million tons of carbon dioxide per year in a diversity of geological formations across the United States; and an assessment of the national capacity for carbon dioxide storage. The bill also directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competitive grant program for the demonstration of carbon capture and storage from industrial sources.
  • The bill also requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish a competitive grant demonstration program for projects to capture and store or use the carbon dioxide emitted from the Capitol power plant as a result of burning coal.

Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV) (198 cosponsors) Action: 12/13/07: Passed the Senate by 86-8. 12/18/07: Passed the House by 314-100; 12/19/07: Signed by the President into law.

 

Other

H. RES. 450: This resolution recognizes the significance of the centennial of the birth of Rachel Carson and, among other provisions, "recognizes that we could learn much more from her today, especially as we increasingly feel the effects of climate change and consider measures to lessen and eventually reverse the impact it has on the planet." Sponsor: Rep. Tom Udall (D-NM) (17 cosponsors)

H.R. 1602: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Environmental Justice Act of 2007. This bill, among other provisions, directs the head of each Federal agency, to to make achieving environmental justice part of its mission. The bill also establishes a Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Interagency Environmental Justice Working Group. In its findings section, the bill declares that "Years before Hurricane Katrina, environmental justice activists were anticipating the racially disproportionate effects of climate change, in terms of coastal flooding and the health effects of heat waves, through the Environmental Justice and Climate Change Initiative (EJCC)." Sponsor: Rep. William Jefferson (D-LA)

H.R. 2906:
10th Congressional District of Illinois School Conservation Corps Act. This act would require the Secretary of Education to make grants to establish and support the 10th Congressional District of Illinois School Conservation Corps. In setting priorities for the activities sponsored by the grants, the bill makes finding ways for schools and families to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; meeting with local officials to encourage their reduction of GHGs; and forming groups to ask large companies to provide financial tax incentives to lower GHG emissions, as the second, sixth, and seventh priorities (of seven), respectively. Sponsor: Rep. Mark Kirk (R-IL)