Stephen O. Andersen

HFO-1234yf: An Examination of Projected Long-Term Costs of Production

HFO-1234yf: An Examination of Projected Long-Term Costs of Production

April 2017

By David Sherry, Maria Nolan, Stephen Seidel, and Stephen O. Andersen

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This paper seeks to inform the discussion on what the price of HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) might be over the longer term when application and process patents have expired, economy of scale is achieved at production facilities using the most efficient processes, more producers are involved, and a fully competitive global market takes hold. The analysis focuses on the estimated costs of production based on one process currently in use, and a different process at a recently completed facility. We expect that long-term market prices will reflect broader factors of supply and demand. It is also possible over time that new or improved production processes will allow production of HFO-1234yf at lower costs and prices than estimated here.

Stephen O. Andersen
Stephen Seidel
0

Approaches to Structuring a High Ambient Temperature Exemption

Approaches to Structuring a High Ambient Temperature Exemption 

March 2016

By Steve Seidel, Jennifer Huang, and Stephen O. Andersen

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As parties to the Montreal Protocol consider an amendment to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), one critical concern is whether suitable alternatives for air-conditioning applications are available and adequately demonstrated for cooling capacity and energy efficiency under conditions of high ambient temperatures. Given the critical importance of these applications, one option being considered by parties is to provide a time-limited exemption for those uses in countries that could be adversely impacted by high ambient temperatures. This paper looks at a number of options for how such an exemption might be structured.

Jennifer Huang
Stephen O. Andersen
Stephen Seidel
0
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