Climate change

Bills of the 113th Congress Concerning Climate Change

The bills, resolutions, and amendments of the 113th Congress dealing with climate change are divided into the following categories:

Climate Change Adaptation

H.R.70: Deficit Reduction, Job Creation, and Energy Security Act
This bill would establish various grants, including a National Grant Program for Coastal and Ocean Sustainability and Health. It would direct funds to be used for coastal management planning and implementation mitigation, restoration, protection, and relocation of coastal communities threatened by the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Shelia Jackson Lee (D-TX) (introduced 1/3/2013).

H.R.152: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013
Overall, the bill provides $5.4 billion for the Federal Emergency Management Agency's disaster relief fund and $5.4 billion to rebuild transportation systems. The Army Corps of Engineers will receive $1.4 billion, part of which will go towards conducting a comprehensive study to address flood risks of vulnerable coastal populations in areas impacted by Hurricane Sandy, part of which will also go towards flood control and construction related to the consequences of Hurricane Sandy. The Department of Housing and Urban Development's community development program will get $3.9 billion, part of which will go towards restoration and infrastructure resiliency. The Federal Highway Administration will get $2 billion, and U.S. EPA will receive $608 million. Sponsor: Rep. Harold Rogers (R-KY) (introduced 1/4/2013). Action: 1/28/2013 Passed in the Senate 62-36; 1/29/2013 signed by the President and became public law No 113-2.

H.R.219: Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013
This bill would streamline environmental review with the effect of expediting hazard mitigation projects, it would allow FEMA to be more flexible when issuing grants, and it would provide grants to reduce debris removal costs, amongst other things. Of particular relevance, 180 days after enactment of this bill, the Administrator of FEMA would be required to submit to Congress recommendations for a national strategy on how to improve the resiliency of local communities and States for the purpose of lowering future costs of disaster response and recovery. Each provision in H.R. 219 was part of the 112th Congress H.R.2903, the FEMA Reauthorization Act of 2012, which passed by voice vote on September 19, 2012. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Denham (R-CA) (introduced 1/14/2013). Action: 1/14/2013 Passed in the House 403-0. For further action, see H.R. 152.

H.R.518: To amend the Reclamation States Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1991 for the purposes of extending the Reclamation States Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1991 through 2018, and for other purposes.
The bill would extend authority and authorizes appropriations for the drought program through FY2018. It also would require cooperative drought contingency plans to provide for periodic review to address projected long-term climate variability and change. Sponsor: Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) (introduced 2/5/2013).

H.R.764: Coastal State Climate Change Planning Act
This bill would amend the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 to direct the Secretary of Commerce to establish a coastal climate change adaptation planning and response program. This program would provide assistance to coastal states to voluntarily develop coastal climate change adaptation plans. It also would provide financial and technical assistance and training for such plans and authorizes the Secretary to make grants to develop and support projects that implement strategies contained in such plans. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 2/15/2013).

H.R.765: Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Act of 2013
This bill would require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to: (1) establish the Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Program. The Program would provide grants to owners or operators of water systems to increase the resiliency or adaptability of the systems to any ongoing or forecasted changes to the hydrologic conditions of a U.S. region, and (2) give priority to owners or operators of water systems that are at the greatest and most immediate risk of facing significant negative impacts due to changing hydrologic conditions. Grant funds used to improve existing water systems would have to be used in a manner that would not further increase net greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 3/1/2013).

H.R.1025: Berryessa Snow Mountain National Conservation Area Act
This bill would establish the Berryessa Snow Mountain National Conservation Area within Napa, Lake, Mendocino, Solano, and Yolo Counties in California. States that the purpose of the Conservation Area is the conservation, protection, and enhancement of the ecological, scenic, wildlife, recreational, cultural, historical, natural, educational, and scientific resources of the lands included in the Area for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. Of relevance, the bill would require the production of plans to manage to manage and conserve the land. Each plan would be required to assess the impacts of climate change on the conservation area. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Thompson (D-CA) (introduced 3/7/2013).

H.R.1187: Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act
This bill would designate specified National Forest System lands, National Park System lands, and public lands in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming as wilderness and as components or additions to existing components of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Of particular note, this bill would establish a federal program to protect, restore, and conserve natural resources in response to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (introduced 3/14/13).

H.R. 1351: Public Lands Service Corps Act of 2013
This bill would make amendments to the Public Lands Service Corps Act of 1993. In particular, it would describe the types of projects that would be carried out by the Public Lands Service Corps under the Act, which include carbon sequestration, and adaptability and resiliency efforts to protect against climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 3/21/2013). Related Bill: S.360.

H.R.1382: Digital Coast Act of 2013
This bill would direct NOAA to establish and implement a constitute-driven platform integrating geospatial data, decision support tools, training, and best practices to address coastal and emergency management issues. This bill articulates a congressional finding that highly accurate, high-resolution remote sensing and geospatial data play an important role in management of the coastal zone and economy, including community resilience to longer range climate change impacts. Sponsor: Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-MD).

H.R.1579: Inclusive Prosperity Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to impose certain taxes and to provide tax credits for certain secured transactions. Of relevance, it would declare Congressional recognition that extreme weather events rooted in climate change, including flood, drought, fire, super storms like Sandy, as well as `slow-onset' events like sea level rise, are wreaking havoc in the United States and across the globe resulting in climate change impacts that jeopardize the lives and livelihoods of Americans, causing large-scale food and energy insecurity in developing countries, and extolling untold economic costs. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 4/16/2013).

H.R. 1834: 21st Century Great Outdoors Commission Act
This bill would establish the 21st Century Great Outdoors Commission, which would assess the use, value, job creation, and economic opportunities associated with the outdoor resources of public lands and other U.S. lands and water areas. The bill articulates a congressional finding that changing demographics, impacts of climate change, lack of public access, and funding shortfalls create challenges for land and recreation managers. The bill would create the opportunity to provide policy recommendations, including recommendations on how to address key challenges such as climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 5/6/2013).

H.R.2023: Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act
This bill would direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop a national strategic action plan to assist health professionals in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 5/16/2013).

H.R. 2322: Strengthening the Resiliency of Our Nation on the Ground Act
This bill is intended minimize the future costs and prepare for extreme weather events. It would provide state and local governments with information aimed to improve the resilience of local infrastructure. The “STRONG Act” would create an interagency working group chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy that would assess existing resiliency efforts and find any gaps, then implement a plan to support public and private resiliency efforts. Rep. Scott Peters (D-CA) (introduced June 11, 2013).

H.R.2368: GREEN Act
This bill would direct the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Department of Labor, to award grants to eligible partnerships to develop programs of study that are focused on emerging careers and jobs in the fields of, amongst others, climate change mitigation, and climate change adaptation. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (introduced 6/13/2013).

H.R.2601: Beach Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act relating to beach monitoring. Of relevance, the Administrator would be directed to conduct a study on the long-term impact of climate change on pathogenic contamination of coastal recreation waters. The results of the study would highlight necessary Federal actions to help advance the availability of information and tools to assess and mitigate these effects in order to protect public and ecosystem health. Sponsor: Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ) (introduced 6/28/2013).

H.R.2875: Waterfront of Tomorrow Act of 2013
This bill would authorize programs and activities for the improvement and protection of ports and harbors. Of particular note, this bill would require the Army Corp. to conduct a study on measures to improve flood protection and climate resilience in New York City. Sponsor: Rep. Nydia Velazquez (D-NY) (introduced 7/31/2013).

H.CON.RES.13: Expressing the sense of the Congress that the United States Fish and Wildlife Service should incorporate consideration of global warming and sea-level rise into the comprehensive conservation plans for coastal national wildlife refuges, and for other purposes.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI). (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.RES.41: Expressing support for designation of February 12, 2013, as Darwin Day and recognizing the importance of science in the betterment of humanity.
Of relevance, this bill would recognize that the advancement of science must be protected from those unconcerned with the adverse impacts of global warming and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ) (introduced 1/22/2013).

H.Res.68: Expressing support for the goals and ideals of National Marine Awareness Day.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognizes that the ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all carbon dioxide emissions, which causes ocean acidification, affecting marine organisms that use carbonate to build shells or skeletons. Sponsor: Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.RES.220: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the contributions of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize the increasing importance of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in addressing effects of trade on species, while taking into account multiple and compounding threats on species and ecosystems such as over-exploitation, habitat loss, invasive species, disease, and the effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Alcee Hastings (D-FL) (introduced 5/17/2013).

H.RES.467: Expressing support for designation of February 12, 2014, as "Darwin Day" and recognizing the importance of science in the betterment of humanity.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize the advancement of science must be protected from those unconcerned with the adverse impacts of global warming and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ) (introduced 1/29/2014).

H.RES.479: Recognizing the 20th anniversary of the Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that climate change is one of the biggest public health threats, disproportionately impacting communities less able to recover from extreme weather events and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 2/11/2014).

H.AMDT.581: Would amend H.R.3826. This amendment would accept the scientific finding that greenhouse gas pollution is “contributing to the long-lasting changes in our climate that can have a range of negative effects.” Sponsor: Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-IL). Action: Failed in House, 190-221.

S.7: Extreme Weather Prevention and Resilience Act
This bill would express the sense of the Senate that Congress should: (1) promote investment to ensure resilience to extreme weather and disasters; (2) promote investment in clean energy infrastructure; (3) promote the development of clean energy technologies; and (4) ensure that the federal government is a leader in reducing pollution, promoting the use of clean energy sources, and improving energy efficiency. Regarding the first expression, it would promote investment to protect communities from extreme weather, sea-level rise, drought, flooding, wildfire, and other changing conditions exacerbated by carbon pollution. Sponsor: Sen. Harry Reid (D-NV). (introduced 1/22/2013).

S.106: Public Access to Historical Records Act
This bill would direct the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish an official dataset on the historical temperature record. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

S.271: Better Health in the Arctic Act
This bill articulates a congressional finding that the impacts of climate change include health problems. Sponsor: Sen. Mark Begich (D-AK) (introduced 2/11/2013).

S.272: Arctic Research, Monitoring, and Observing Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 to direct the Arctic Research Commission to award merit-based grants to federal, state, local, or tribal governments and academic and private organizations to conduct research on or related to the Arctic. Of relevance, the Congress would declare as follows: a lack of research integration and synthesis of findings of Arctic research has impeded the progress of the United States and international community in understanding climate change impacts and feedback mechanisms in the Arctic Ocean, and an improved scientific understanding of the changing Arctic is critical to the development of appropriate and effective regional, national, and global climate change adaptation strategies. Sponsor: Sen. Mark Begich (D-AK) (introduced 2/11/2013).

S.360: Public Lands Service Corps Act of 2013
This bill would make amendments to the Public Lands Service Corps Act of 1993. In particular, it would describe the types of projects that would be carried out by the Public Lands Service Corps under the Act, which include carbon sequestration, and adaptability and resiliency efforts to protect against climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) (introduced 2/14/2013). Action: 6/18/2013: reported out of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee by a voice vote.

S.839: Coral Reef Conservation Amendments Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to transfer certain authority from the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to the Secretary of Commerce. It would direct the Secretary to submit to Congress a national coral reef ecosystem action strategy, which would include discussions of various dangers to reef ecosystems including climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Bill Nelson (D-FL) (introduced 4/25/2013).

S.1202: SAFE Act
This bill would establish a Federal program designed to respond to ongoing and expected impacts of extreme weather and climate change. It would establish a Natural Resources Climate Change Adaptation Panel composed of the heads of U.S. Federal agencies or departments with jurisdiction over natural resources and tribal representatives. The panel would focus on protecting, restoring, and conserving natural resources so that natural resources become more resilient, adapt to, and withstand the ongoing and expected impacts of extreme weather and climate change. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior, in collaboration with the States, Indian tribes, and other partner organizations, would establish a National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center within the United States Geological Survey. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 6/20/2013).

S.1205: Local Energy Supply and Resiliency Act of 2013
The bill would require the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to provide assistance in identifying, evaluating, planning, and designing local energy infrastructure. In evaluating projects, the Secretary would be required to give priority to projects that have the greatest potential for strengthening the reliability of local energy supplies and boosting the resiliency of energy infrastructure to the impact of extreme weather events, power grid failures, and interruptions in supply of fossil fuels; minimizing environmental impact, including regulated air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and use of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Sponsor: Sen. Al Franken (D-MN) (introduced 6/20/2013).

S.1508: Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Act of 2013
This bill would require the EPA to establish a program of awarding grants to owners or operators of water systems to increase their resilience. Of particular relevance, water systems for communities and agriculture production to improve water supply reliability, storage, should not result in a net increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD) (introduced 9/17/2013).

S.2042: Clean Estuaries Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill would require management conferences convened with respects to estuaries to address the effects of climate change on the estuary, and to develop and implement adaptation strategies. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 2/26/2014).

Clean Energy

H.R.400: Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Act of 2013
This bill would require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Fund, to be administered through the International Trade Administration. It also would require the Secretary to administer the Fund to promote policies that would reduce production costs and encourage innovation, investment, and productivity in the clean energy technology sector, and implement a national clean energy technology export strategy. Clean energy technologies would be defined as those related to the production, use, transmission, storage, control, or conservation of energy that aim to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

H.R.1138: Small Business Clean Energy Financing Act of 2013
This bill would direct the Administrator of the Small Business Administration to establish a program to guarantee loans of small technology manufacturing businesses that would contribute to a stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations in the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 3/13/2013).

H.R.1696: Master Limited Partnerships Parity Act
This bill extends the publicly traded partnership ownership structure (i.e., master limited partnerships) to energy power generation projects, transportation fuels, and related energy activities. These include renewable energy, electricity storage devices, combined heat and power, renewable thermal energy, waste heat to power, renewable fuel infrastructure, renewable fuels, energy efficient buildings, gasification with sequestration, and carbon capture and storage. Sponsors: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (introduced 4/24/2013). Related Bill: S.795.

H.R.2685: Smart Grid Advancement Act of 2013
This bill would require DOE and EPA to assess the potential of smart grid integration and capabilities in all products reviewed under Energy Star. The bill would also establish smart grid peak demand reduction goals. The bill would also require an analysis of the potential energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and electricity cost savings from smart grid products. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (introduced 7/12/2013).

H.AMDT.67: Would amend H.R.3. This amendment would delay effect of the bill unless the president found that tar sands producers could fully offset the additional greenhouse gas emissions produced annually. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA). Action: Failed in the House 146-269.

S.AMDT.454: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create international programs to export clean energy technologies and aid climate adaptation efforts, including those designed to reduce short-lived climate pollutants in the near term. Sponsor: Sen. Chris Murphy (D-CT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.499: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. Amends S.CON.RES.8 (FY2014 Senate budget resolution). This amendment would establish a deficit-neutral reserve fund to ensure that abundant domestic energy sources and technologies could meet present and future greenhouse gas emissions rules. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013). Action: Agreed to in Senate by unanimous consent.

S.570: A bill to establish a competitive grant program in the Department of Energy to provide grants to States and units of local government to carry out clean energy and carbon reduction measures, to close big oil company tax loopholes to pay for the competitive grant program and reduce the deficit, and for other purposes
See title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO) (introduced 3/14/2013).

S.795: Master Limited Partnerships Parity Act
This bill extends the publicly traded partnership ownership structure (i.e., master limited partnerships) to energy power generation projects, transportation fuels, and related energy activities. These include renewable energy, electricity storage devices, combined heat and power, renewable thermal energy, waste heat to power, renewable fuel infrastructure, renewable fuels, energy efficient buildings, gasification with sequestration, and carbon capture and storage. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE). (introduced 4/24/2013). Related Bill: H.R.1696.

S.1627: American Renewable Energy and Efficiency Act
This bill would establish a federal renewable electricity standard of 25% by 2025. Of particular relevance, qualified biomass would be defined as renewable biomass that results in a 50-percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy, as compared to the operation of a combined cycle natural gas power plant using the most efficient commercial available technology. Sponsor: Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA) (introduced 10/31/2013).

S.1952: Green Act
This bill would authorize the Secretary of Education to award competitive grants to develop programs of study focused on clean energy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, climate change mitigation, and climate adaptation. Sponsor: Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) (introduced 1/16/2014).

Energy Tax Reform  Discussion Draft
This bill would overhaul federal energy tax credits and establish a technology-neutral tax credit based on greenhouse gas emissions; the cleaner the facility, the larger the tax credit. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT) (introduced 12/18/2014).

Energy Efficiency

H.R. 1616: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. In addition, the legislation would clarify that Energy Service Companies and Utility Service Contracts could be used by federal agencies to install natural gas and electric vehicle charging infrastructure, which would facilitate the use of these vehicles. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 4/18/2013). Related Bills: S.761, S.1392.

H.R.2126: Better Buildings Act of 2013
This bill would facilitate better alignment, cooperation, and best practices between commercial real estate landlords and tenants regarding energy efficiency in buildings. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 5/23/2013). Action: 3/5/2014 Passed in the House 375-36. Related Bill: S.1191.

H.R.2863: GREEN Jobs Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act of 1994 to allow financial and technical assistance to small businesses that provide green jobs (e.g., jobs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants) to low-income individuals. Sponsor: Rep. Donald Payne (D-NJ) (introduced 7/30/13).

S.761: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. In addition, the legislation would clarify that Energy Service Companies and Utility Service Contracts could be used by federal agencies to install natural gas and electric vehicle charging infrastructure, which would facilitate the use of these vehicles. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH). (introduced 4/18/2013; Reported by Committee 5/8/2013). Related Bill: H.R. 1616, S.1392.

S.1191: Better Buildings Act of 2013
This bill would facilitate better alignment, cooperation, and best practices between commercial real estate landlords and tenants regarding energy efficiency in buildings. Of relevance, the impact on climate change would not be a factor in determining the energy efficiency of commercial building tenants. Sponsor: Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO) (introduced 6/19/2013). Related Bill: H.R.2126

S.1213: Weatherization Enhancement, and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act
This bill would reauthorize Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for low-income persons for FY2014-2018. The bill articulates a congressional finding that WAP reduces residential and power plant emissions of carbon dioxide by 2.65 metric tons each year per home. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE) (introduced 6/25/2013). Related Bill: S.2052.

S.1392: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (introduced 7/30/2013). Related Bills: H.R.1616, S.761.

S.2052: Weatherization Enhancement and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act
This bill would reauthorize Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for low-income persons for FY2014-2018. The bill articulates a congressional finding that WAP reduces residential and power plant emissions of carbon dioxide by 2.65 metric tons each year per home. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE) (introduced 2/27/2014). Related Bill: S.1213.

S.2074: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2014
This bill builds on the previously introduced S.1392, the Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013. Of note, this proposal would establish a Tenant Star program to promote energy efficiency in leased commercial buildings, requires benchmarking of energy use in federally-leased buildings, establishes a Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) demonstration project using energy savings contracts to perform retrofits on low-income housing, remove the third-party testing of electronic product requirement for the Energy Star program partners that are in compliance, exclude thermal storage water heaters under energy efficiency standards, and requires federal mortgage underwriting to include a home’s expected energy cost savings when determining the value of home mortgage. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (introduced 2/27/2014). Related Bills: H.R.2126, H.R.3820, H.R.4092, S.1106, S.1191, S.1206, S.1392, S.1739.

Transportation

H.R.974: MOVE Freight Act of 2013
This bill would establish a national freight network, composed of highways, railways, navigable waterways, seaports, airports, freight intermodal connectors, and aerotropolis transportation systems most critical to the multimodal movement of freight with the goal of improving the efficiency of the system. This would include providing competitive grants and planning assistance. Of particular relevance, in determining whether to award a grant, the Secretary of Transportation must consider the extent to which the project reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Albio Sires (D-NJ) (introduced 3/5/2013).

H.R.1027: Advanced Vehicle Technology Act of 2013
This bill would authorize DOE to conduct a program of basic and applied research, development, engineering, demonstration, and commercial application in vehicle technologies to reduce oil consumption. The bill articulates a congressional finding that the transportation sector accounts for 28 percent of U.S. primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Gary Peters (D-MI) (introduced 3/7/2013).

H.R. 1364: New Alternative Transportation to Give American Solutions Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to provide tax credits for medium- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles and natural gas vehicle refueling infrastructure. This bill articulates a sense of Congress that EPA’s new fuel-economy and greenhouse gas emission regulations for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should provide incentives to encourage and reward manufacturers who produce natural gas powered vehicles. Sponsor: Rep. John Larson (D-CT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

H.R.2075: Electric Transportation Advancement Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 by adding a provision that would establish or maintain a competitive grant and revolving loan program. In selecting grant and loan recipients, the Secretary of Energy would be required to consider the overall cost- effectiveness of a proposed, qualified electric transportation project in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (introduced 5/21/2013).

H.R.2242: State and Local Fleet Efficiency Act
By imposing purchasing requirements, this bill would promote the use of natural gas, flexible fuel, and high-efficiency motor vehicle fleets. Of relevance, the bill explicitly states that it would not limit the authority of any State or local government to establish purchase requirements applicable to fleets if such requirements are intended to further any policy regarding climate change and the control of air pollution, amongst other things. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (introduced 6/4/2013).

H.R.3638: Road Usage Fee Pilot Program Act of 2013
This bill would require the Secretary of Treasury to establish competitive grants under a Road Use Fee Pilot Program to states and localities. Of relevance, this bill would establish three working groups, one of which will evaluate the program potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 12/6/2013).

S.387: American Infrastructure Investment Fund Act
In general, this bill would attempt to stimulate investment for infrastructure and related projects. Of particular relevance, the bill would establish a fund to support environmental sustainability efforts of national or regional transportation systems. This would include ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the bill would establish a competitive grant program for projects that improve further the transportation system. In determining whether to award a grant, the Secretary of Transportation would consider the extent to which the project improves energy efficiency or reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Jay Rockefeller (D-WV) (introduced 2/26/2013).

Natural Gas

H.R.1189: American Natural Gas Security and Consumer Protection Act
This bill would amend the Natural Gas Act to prohibit any person from exporting any natural gas from the United States to a foreign country without first having secured authorization from the Secretary of Energy (DOE). Of particular relevance, the bill would direct the Secretary to issue final regulations for determining whether an export of natural gas from the United States to a foreign country is in the public interest. A measure of public interest would include the ability of the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 3/14/2013).

S.1767: Pipeline Modernization and Consumer Protection Act
This bill would require gas pipeline operators to accelerate the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of gas piping or equipment that is leaking, may pose a high-risk of leaking, or may no longer be fit for service. This bill also articulates a congressional finding that methane (i.e., natural gas) is a greenhouse gas that is at least 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 11/21/2013).

S.1768: Pipeline Revolving Fund and Job Creation Act
This bill would require the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to establish revolving loan funds to repair or replace natural gas distribution pipelines. Each state receiving a grant will be required to publish a list of eligible projects, its priority on the list and expected funding schedule, and include an estimate of expected reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for that project. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 11/21/2013).

S.2088: American Natural Gas Security and Consumer Protection Act
Of relevance, this bill would require the Secretary of Energy, when considering an application for export of natural gas, to consider such factors as the ability of the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 3/6/2014).

Other Greenhouse Gases

H.R.1220: Asthma Inhalers Relief Act of 2013
This bill would direct the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to permit the distribution, sale, and consumption in the United States of CFC epinephrine inhalers. It would prohibit EPA from enforcing upon or restricting the distribution, sale, or consumption of CFC epinephrine inhalers on the basis of any federal law implementing the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 3/15/2013).

H.R. 1943: SUPER Act of 2013
This bill would create a task force to review existing policies and develop best practices aimed at combating significant drivers of global climate change. This task force would find gaps and overlaps among the already existing efforts of multiple levels of government and coalesce them in order to achieve super pollutant reductions. Super pollutants include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons. Sponsor: Rep. Scott Peters (D-CA) (introduced 5/9/2013).

H.R.3424: Converting Methane Into Petroleum Act of 2013
This bill would provide a tax credit for facilities using a qualified methane conversion technology (e.g., technology that has a lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production and combustion than conventional petroleum fuel sources) to provide transportation fuels and chemicals. Sponsor: Rep. John Larson (D-CT) (introduced 10/30/2013).

International

H.R.1793: Global Partnerships Act of 2013
This bill would establish a new framework for U.S. foreign assistance. Of particular relevance, this bill would provide foreign assistance to mitigate and adapt to climate change and establish debt-for-nature exchanges for a range of activities including projects that address the effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA) (introduced 4/26/2013).

H.R.2610: Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014
This bill would provide annual funding for various programs under the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and other federal agencies. Of particular note, funds from this bill could not be used to implement the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme for aviation. Sponsor: Rep. Tom Latham (R-IA) (introduced 7/2/2013). Related Bills: H.R.3547, H.Res.312, S.1243.

H.R.3570: To prohibit the United States from following guidance issued by the Secretary of the Treasury regarding how multilateral development banks should engage with developing countries on coal-fired power generation, and for other purposes
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 11/21/2013).

H.CON.RES.7: Expressing the sense of Congress that the United States should provide, on an annual basis, an amount equal to at least one percent of United States gross domestic product (GDP) for nonmilitary foreign assistance programs.
The bill acknowledges the importance of contributing to global efforts that combat climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 1/4/2013).

H.CON.RES.36: Recognizing the disparate impact of climate change on women and the efforts of women globally to address climate change.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 4/26/2013).

S.AMDT.440: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a deficit-neutral reserve fund relating to global warming. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

Other Climate Action

H.R.547: Border Security and Responsibility Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agencies to submit a border protection strategy to Congress. Of relevance, agencies would be required to develop and implement a monitoring and mitigation plan, which would include measures to protect habitat to ensure animal species are able to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 2/6/2013).

H.R.1807: The Residential Energy and Economic Savings (TREES) Act
This bill would establish a grant program to assist retail power providers to support targeted residential tree-planting programs for a number of reasons including utilizing trees to lower ambient temperature and absorb carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 5/3/2013).

H.R.1890: Balancing Food, Farm, and the Environment Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Food Security Act of 1985 and would allow farmers to be rewarded for their carbon sequestration efforts through USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Regional funding would also be available for farmer-led efforts to increase resilience to rising temperatures and extreme weather. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 5/8/2013). Related Bill: S.923

H.R.2182: Half in Ten Act of 2013
This bill would establish a Federal Interagency Working Group on Reducing Poverty within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The working group would develop a National Strategy to reduce the number of persons living in poverty in America in half within 10 years after release of the 2012 Census report on Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011. The bill acknowledges that individuals and families in poverty are more socially vulnerable to natural disasters, extreme weather and impacts of climate change and have greater difficulty preparing for, responding to and recovering from such events. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 5/23/2013).

H.R.2553: National Infrastructure Development Bank Act of 2013
This bill would establish a National Infrastructure Development Bank. Of particular note, reduction in greenhouse gases would be one factor considered for transportation, environmental, and energy infrastructure projects. Sponsor: Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) (introduced 6/27/2013).

H.R.3163: CIR ASAP Act of 2013
This bill would provide for comprehensive immigration reform. This bill would require federal agencies to submit a border protection strategy to Congress. Of relevance, agencies would be required to develop and implement a monitoring and mitigation plan, which would include measures to protect habitat to ensure animal species are able to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-NM) (introduced 9/20/2013).

H.R.3563: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would establish a corporate responsibility investment fund option under the Thrift Savings Account. One criterion for selection under this fund is environmental practices (including greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to climate change). This bill articulates a congressional finding that the United States National Research Council has established that human activity is largely responsible for recent climate change and threatens significant harm to our Nation’s public health and welfare, security, agriculture and forestry, natural resources, infrastructure, and economy. Sponsor: Rep. James Langevin (D-RI) (introduced 11/20/2013). Related Bills: S.1746.

H.R. 4097: Salmon Solutions and Planning Act
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that without action, climate change will continue to have detrimental effects on North American coldwater fish. This bill would also require the Army Corp of Engineers to update its Final Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report, and to consider factors such as current and expected future climate change impacts on Columbia and Snake River salmon and steelhead population and their habitats. Sponsor: Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA) (introduced 2/26/2014).

H.R. 4159: America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill would require the Department of Energy to carry out climate science research, which includes modeling greenhouse gas emissions, informing mitigation and adaptation options. Sponsor: Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) (introduced 3/6/2014).

H.AMDT.541: Would amend H.R.3590. This amendment would promote the Secretary of Interior’s authority to include climate change as a consideration in making decisions related to conservation and recreation on public lands. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ). Action: Failed in the House, 181-242.

S.923: Balancing Food, Farm, and the Environment Act of 2013 (introduced in conjunction with H.R. 1890)
This bill would amend the Food Security Act of 1985 and allow farmers to be rewarded for their carbon sequestration efforts through USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Regional funding would also be available for farmer-led efforts to increase resilience to rising temperatures and extreme weather. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) (introduced 5/9/2013).

S.1746: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would establish a corporate responsibility investment fund option under the Thrift Savings Account. One criterion for selection under this fund would be environmental practices (including greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to climate change). This bill articulates a congressional finding that the United States National Research Council has established that human activity is largely responsible for recent climate change and threatens significant harm to our Nation’s public health and welfare, security, agriculture and forestry, natural resources, infrastructure, and economy. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 11/20/2013). Related Bills: H.R.3563.

S.2100: Clean Cookstoves and Fuels Support Act
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that black carbon emissions from residential cookstoves in developing countries account for an estimated 21 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions, and that mitigation in this sector represents a large potential public health benefit. This bill would authorize appropriations Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and foreign governments. Sponsor: Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) (introduced 3/10/2014).

Renewable Fuels

H.R.1469: LEVEL Act
This bill would revise certain aspects of the renewable fuels program under the Clean Air Act by: redefining “renewable fuel”; revoking the requirements that renewable fuel achieve a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions; reducing the volume of renewable fuel required to be in gasoline sold or introduced in the United States; requiring EIA to estimate the volumes of gasoline (current of transportation fuel, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic biofuel) projected to be sold or introduced in the following year; making one gallon of cellulosic biomass or waste-derived ethanol equivalent to 2.5 gallons of renewable fuel; repealing provisions concerning cellulosic biofuel and biomass-based diesel; and repealing requirements that EPA promulgate fuel regulations to implement measures to mitigate adverse impacts on air quality as the result of renewable fuel requirements. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 4/10/2013).

H.R.1482: Renewable Fuel Standard Amendments Act
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to eliminate certain requirements under the renewable fuel program, including the modification of greenhouse gas reduction percentages. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Womack (R-AR) (introduced 4/12/2013).

H.R.2478: Section 526 Repeal Act
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to repeal the requirement that federal agencies procure alternative fuels that have lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Conaway (R-TX) (introduced 6/25/2013). Related Bills: S.1100

H.AMDT.380: Would amend H.R.2397. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 237-189.

H.AMDT.132: Would amend H.R.2217. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by voice vote.

H.AMDT.316: Would amend H.R.2609. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by voice vote.

S.1100: North American Alternative Fuels Act
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to repeal the requirement that federal agencies procure alternative fuels that have lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 6/6/2013). Related Bills: H.R.2478.

Carbon Tax

H.R.1486: No Carbon Tax Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from devising or implementing a carbon tax. Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall, II (R-WV) (introduced 4/11/2013).

H.CON.RES.8: Expressing the opposition of Congress to Federal efforts to establish a carbon tax on fuels for electricity and transportation.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 1/15/2013).

H.CON.RES.24: Expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax would be detrimental to the United States economy.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA) (introduced 3/14/2013).

H.AMDT.448: Would amend H.R.367. This amendment would require the Administration to receive approval from Congress before implementing a carbon tax (i.e., a carbon price). Sponsor: Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 237-176.

S. 332: The Climate Protection Act
This bill would establish a fee on the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from major emitters. It would also place a tax on oil and natural gas imports from countries that do not already charge a carbon tax. It is estimated that the carbon tax would generate $1.2 trillion in revenue over 10 years. Revenue from the bill would be used to, among other things: rebate all U.S. residents; support activities intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (including those promoting energy efficiency and low-emitting energy technologies); fund programs to provide training for workers moving to clean energy jobs; reduce the deficit; and fund climate change-resilient infrastructure. The bill would also require full disclosure of chemicals used during the hydrofracturing process. Sponsors: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 2/14/2013).

S. CON.RES.4: A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of Congress that a Carbon tax is not in the economic interest of the United States.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/28/2013).

S.AMDT.261: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would provide a point of order against legislation that would create a federal tax or a fee on carbon emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate by a vote of 53-46.

S.AMDT.646: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would establish a tax on carbon pollution and would require that any revenue raised be returned to the American people in the form of deficit reduction, reduced federal tax rates, and other cost savings. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate by a vote of 41-58.

Carbon Pollution Fee Discussion Draft
This bill would establish a fee on the emissions of greenhouse gases from major emitters. Seeking comments on the use of revenues, such as: mitigating energy costs for low-income households, reducing the federal deficit, reducing the tax liability for individuals and businesses, protecting jobs of energy-intensive trade exposed industries, and investing in other activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsors: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) (introduced 3/12/2013).

Elimination of Tax Credit for Carbon Capture and Storage

H.R.243: Bowles-Simpson Plan of Lowering America's Debt Act
This bill would adopt reforms recommended by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (i.e., Bowles-Simpson Plan) to reduce spending and make the Federal Government more efficient. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Dennis Ross (R-FL) (introduced 1/14/2013).

H.R.259: Energy Freedom and Economic Prosperity Act
This bill would repeal credits for many renewable energy initiatives, as well as any credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (CCS). Specifically related to CCS, it would apply to any carbon captured after December 21, 2014. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 1/15/2013).

H.R.505: Balancing Act
This bill would repeal certain sequestration requirements implemented by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Pub.L. 112-25). Of relevance, this bill would end the Sec.45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery). Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 4/23/2013).

H.R.609: End Big Oil Tax Subsidies Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel subsidies for large oil companies. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed for taxpayers that are not a small independent oil and gas company. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 2/12/2013).

H.R.1569: New Fair Deal Busting America's Rigid Outdated & Needless Subsidies Act of 2013.
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to repeal tax credits for alternative fuel mixtures, plug-in electric drive motor vehicles, enhanced oil recovery tax credit and the tax credit for producing oil and gas from marginal wells, producing electricity from certain renewable resources, and for carbon dioxide sequestration. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 4/15/2013)H.R.3574: End Polluter Welfare Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel tax breaks and eliminate fossil fuel research and development programs and projects. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bill: S.1762.

S. 329: The Sustainable Energy Act
This bill would eliminate certain fossil fuel subsidies and remove limited liability grants to certain oil and gas projects. Of particular relevance, section 45Q (relating to credit for carbon dioxide sequestration) would not apply to carbon dioxide captured after the date of the enactment of the Sustainable Energy Act. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 2/14/2013).

S.1762: End Polluter Welfare Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel tax breaks and eliminate fossil fuel research and development programs and projects. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bill: H.R.3574.

S.AMDT.501: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would establish a deficit-neutral reserve fund relating to the commercialization of carbon technologies such as carbon capture, carbon storage, and other carbon utilization technologies required for coal and natural gas electric generating units (EGUs) to meet proposed and future greenhouse gas regulations. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013).

H.R.___: Tax Reform Act of 2014
This draft bill would overhaul the federal tax code. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Dave Camp (R-MI) (introduced 2/26/2014).

Budget

H.Amdt.2 to H.R.3547: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014
This omnibus bill would fund federal agencies until the end of the fiscal year 2014. Of note, this bill would block DOE funding for the implementation or enforcement of the federal light bulb efficiency standard, would bar the administration prohibiting funding of new coal-fired power plants overseas until September 30, and would require the president to submit a report detailing federal agency funding for climate change programs, projects, and activities in fiscal year 2013 and 2014. Sponsor: Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX) (introduced 11/20/2013). Action: Passed in the House 12/2/2013 and passed in the Senate 12/12/2013; 1/17/2014 signed by the President.

H.CON.RES.25: Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.
Of relevance, this bill would allow the Senate Budget Committee Chairman to reallocate funds, in a deficit-neutral manner, to ensure greenhouse gas emission standards must be cost effective, based on the best available science, and benefit low- and middle-income families. Sponsor: Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: 3/21/2013, Passed in the House 221-207.

S.1372: Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2014
This bill would provide annual funding for various programs under the State Department and other federal agencies. Of particular relevance, this bill includes $216 million for the Clean Technology Fund, $68 million for the Strategic Climate Fund, and $144 million for the Global Environmental Facility. Sponsor: Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT) (introduced 7/25/2013).

S.CON.RES.8: An original concurrent resolution setting forth the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014, revising the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal year 2013, and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.
This bill would establish a broad framework for the federal budget. During debate on the bill, the following amendments were added that pertain to climate change: S.Amdt.184, S.Amdt.482, S.Amdt.494, S.Amdt.499, S.Amdt.619, Please see below for the summaries of these amendments. Sponsor: Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: Agreed to in the Senate by a vote of 50 – 49.

Keystone XL

H.R.3: Northern Route Approval Act
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that the Department of State found that incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Keystone XL project are estimated in the range of 0.07 to 0.83 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent with the upper end of this range representing twelve one-thousandths of one percent of the 6,702 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2011. This bill would not require a presidential permit for the Keystone pipeline. Sponsor: Rep. Lee Terry (R-NE) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: 5/22/2013 Passed in the House 241-175.

H.R.71: Coral Reef Conservation Act Reauthorization and Enhancement Amendments of 2013
This bill would reauthorize the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to extend the remaining coral reef conservation program grant funds. Of relevance, this bill would require the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to submit a report to Congress every five years detailing implementation of the National Coral Reef Action Strategy. This report would include an assessment of actions taken to address climate change related threats to coral reef ecosystems. Sponsor: Rep. Madeline Bordallo (D-GU) (introduced 1/3/2013).

H.R.2674: Job Creation Act of 2013
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that the Department of State found that incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Keystone XL project are estimated in the range of 0.07 to 0.83 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent with the upper end of this range representing twelve one-thousandths of one percent of the 6,702 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2011. This bill would not require a presidential permit for the Keystone pipeline. Rep. Vern Buchanan (R-FL) (introduced 7/11/2013).

H.RES.214: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that extensive scientific and technical studies and analyses by the Department of State and other Federal agencies have affirmed that the proposed Keystone XL pipeline is an environmentally sound project.
Refer to the title for summary. Of relevance, this bill notes the State Department assessment that found the incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with Keystone XL are less than 1 percent of 2011 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Randy Weber (R-TX) (introduced 1/15/2013).

Curbing Climate Action

H.R.367: Regulations From the Executive in Need of Scrutiny Act of 2013
This bill would require congressional review of federal regulations. A joint resolution of approval would be required for a major rule that: has resulted in or is likely to result in an annual effect on the economy of $50 million or more (the current figure is $100 million), is determined by the EPA administrator to have significant adverse effects on global economic competitiveness, has a significant impact on agricultural entities, implements or provides the implementation of a carbon tax, or a rule under the Affordable Care Act) to take effect. (Currently, major rules take effect unless a joint resolution disapproving them is enacted.) The bill also establishes Congressional disapproval procedures for non-major rules. Sponsor: Rep. Todd Young (R-OH) (introduced 1/23/2013). Action: 8/2/2013 Passed in the House 232-183.

H.R. 621: To prohibit funding for the Environmental Protection Agency to be used to implement or enforce a cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases, and for other purposes.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.R.662: To prohibit United States contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.R.1304: Flexibility to Farm Act
This bill would allow the chief executive of a state to exempt farmers from a requirement of a covered federal environmental law by determining that such a requirement is unduly burdensome. Covered environmental law includes regulations under the Clean Air Act. This bill articulates a congressional finding that EPA regulation of greenhouse gases as an air pollutant under the Clean Air Act could impose an undue burden on agriculture producers. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Walberg (R-MI) (introduced 3/2013).

H.R. 1582: Energy Consumers Relief Act of 2013
Of relevance, the bill would prohibit the use of the social cost of carbon (i.e., any estimate that monetizes the damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in an given year) in the cost-benefit analysis of energy-related regulations with an estimated cost greater than $1 billion until a law is enacted authorizing such use. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Cassidy (R-LA) (introduced 4/16/2013) Action: 8/1/2013 Passed in the House 232-181.

H.R.1881: Energy Production and Project Delivery Act of 2013
This bill would promote oil and gas production by repealing the prohibition against leasing or other development leading to production of oil and gas from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), by deeming the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) to have approved the Draft Proposed Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2010-2015. Of relevance, the bill prohibits the Administrator or the head of any other Federal agency or department from regulating or continuing to implement or enforce any regulations, proposals, or actions establishing any carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions reductions until the Administrator, the Administrator of the Energy Information Agency, and the Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Russian Federation have proposed, implemented, and enforced carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas measures. The bill also prohibits the consideration of the impact of any greenhouse gas or climate change on any species of fish or wildlife or plant in the implementation of this Act.” Sponsor: Rep. Bob Bishop (R-UT) (introduced 5/8/2013).

H.R.2081: No More Excuses Energy Act of 2013
This bill would prescribe a number of actions with the goal of increasing domestic energy production. Such actions would include requiring the President to designate at least 10 sites for oil or natural gas refineries on federal lands and make the sites available to the private sector for construction of refineries, prohibiting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) from denying an application for nuclear waste disposal on the grounds of present or future insufficient capacity, repealing the prohibition against producing oil and gas from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In addition, the EPA Administrator would be unable to promulgate any regulation regarding the emission of a greenhouse gas to address climate change under the Act. In addition, the Act would exclude "greenhouse gas" from the definition of "air pollutant" under the Clean Air Act except in connection with concerns other than climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-TX) (introduced 5/21/2013).

H.R.2127: To prohibit the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from finalizing any rule imposing any standard of performance for carbon dioxide emissions from any existing or new source that is a fossil fuel-fired electric utility generating unit unless and until carbon capture and storage is found to be technologically and economically feasible.
See title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 5/23/2013).

H.R.2593: Cost-Benefit and Regulatory Transparency Enhancement Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agencies, after completing any cost-benefit analysis or regulatory impact analysis used to promulgate rules, guidelines, or administrative actions to: submit a report to Congress on the results and methods (including methods in determining the social cost of carbon) used in the analysis; and to publish the report in the Federal Register. Sponsor: Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA) (introduced 6/28/2013).

H.R.2886: Social Cost of Transparency Enhancement Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agency notice and receipt of public comment before using any estimate of the social of carbon for rulemaking. Sponsor: Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA) (introduced 7/31/2013).

H.R.2948: Transparency in Regulatory Analysis of Impacts on the Nation Act of 2013
This bill would require the President to establish the Committee for the Cumulative Analysis of Regulations that Impact Energy and Manufacturing in the United States. The committee would analyze and report on the cumulative and incremental impacts of covered rules and actions of the EPA concerning air, waste, water, and climate change for each of calendar years 2018, 2023, and 2030. Sponsor: Rep. Jim Matheson (D-UT) (introduced 8/1/2013).

H.R.3033: Energy Security and Employment Act
This bill would expand domestic energy production in the United States. Of relevance, this bill would repeal EPA greenhouse gas regulations. Sponsor: Rep. Robert Latta (R-OH) (introduced 9/13/2013).

H.R.3042: Taking Hold of Regulations to Increase Vital Employment In Energy Act
This bill would prohibit federal agencies from using the social cost of carbon in any regulatory impact analysis until a federal law is enacted authorizing its use. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Murphy (R-PA) (introduced 9/13/2013).

H.R.3140: Ensure Reliable and Affordable American Energy Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to prohibit regulation of carbon dioxide from power plants until the EPA administrator certifies a sufficient number of countries (accounting for not less than 80 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions) have implemented regulations under this Act that are just as stringent. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 9/19/2013).

H.R.3355: Reducing Employer Burdens, Unleashing Innovation, and Labor Development Act of 2013
Of relevance, this bill would require a cost-benefit report to Congress before finalizing any energy-related regulations. EPA would be prohibited from finalizing the rule if the Secretary of Energy determines the rule would cause significant adverse effects on the economy. The bill would also prohibit EPA from using the social cost of carbon in any energy-related regulations established to cost more than $1 billion until Congress authorizes such use. Sponsor: Rep. Brett Guthrie (R-KY) (introduced 10/28/2013).

H.R.3684: Listen to Americans First Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit federal funds from being used for foreign travel by the Administrator of the EPA until the EPA has held public listening sessions on rulemaking for GHG regulations for existing power plants in 15 state with the highest percentage of electricity generated by coal, and the Administrator certifies the listening sessions have taken place. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 12/10/2013).

H.R.3702: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would require EPA to submit a report to Congress on regulations (after enactment of this bill) that would reduce the sulfur content of gasoline, or new air pollutant standards for refineries, including greenhouse gas emissions. Congress would have to enact a law setting the effective date for the rule. Sponsor: Rep. Jack Kingston (R-GA) (introduced 12/11/2013).

H.R.3727: Keep the EPA Honest Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the EPA from proposing EPA greenhouse gas standards for existing power plants before finalizing such standards for new power plants. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 12/12/2013).

H.R.3826: Electricity Security and Affordability Act
This bill would prohibit EPA from requiring new coal plants to use carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions until the technology has been commercially deployed across the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Ed Whitfield (R-KY) (introduced 1/9/2014). Action: 3/6/2014 Passed in the House 229-183. Related Bill: S.1905.

H.R.3895: EXPAND Act
Of relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to exclude greenhouse gases from the definition of an “air pollutant” and would allow owners and operators of gas and oil facilities to report greenhouse gas emissions from sub-basins. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Duncan (R-SC) (introduced 1/16/2014).

H.RES.497: Providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 3826) to provide direction to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency regarding the establishment of standards for emissions of any greenhouse gas from fossil fuel-fired electric utility generating units, and for other purposes, and providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 4118) to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to delay the implementation of the penalty for failure to comply with the individual health insurance mandate.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 3/4/2014). Action: 3/5/2014 Passed in the House 228-182.

H.CON.RES.57: Expressing the opposition of the Congress to the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed rule establishing new source performance standards to limit greenhouse gas emissions from new power plants.
Refer to the title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV) (introduced 9/20/2013).

H.CON.RES.59: Expressing the sense of Congress that the Environmental Protection Agency should hold public listening sessions on regulations targeting carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants in those States most directly impacted by the potential regulations.
Refer to the title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 10/8/2013).

H.J.Res.64: Disapproving a rule submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units"
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 9/25/2013).

H.AMDT.447: Would amend H.R.1582. This amendment would prohibit EPA from using the social cost of carbon in any energy-related regulations established to cost more than $1 billion until Congress authorizes such use. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Murphy (R-PA). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 234-178.

H.AMDT.583: Would amend H.R.3826. This amendment would delay the bill from taking effect until the Administrator of the Energy and Information Administration certified that another federal program will reduce carbon dioxide emissions in at least equivalent quantities, with similar timing and from the same sources, as a program under Sec. 111 of the Clean Air Act. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA). Action: Failed in House, 178-231.

H.AMDT.585: Would amend H.R.2641. This amendment would not allow agencies to use the social cost of carbon from the “Technical Support Document: Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866” from May 2013 or November 2013. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV). Action: Passed in the House 222-188.

S.17: Energy Production and Project Delivery Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the head of any federal agency from implementing or enforcing any regulations, proposals, or actions establishing any carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions reductions until the Administrator, the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, and the Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that the People's Republic of China, India, and the Russian Federation have proposed, implemented, and enforced measures requiring substantially similar reductions. It also would amend the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to prohibit consideration of the impact of greenhouse gas on any species of fish or wildlife or plant for any purpose in the implementation of the ESA. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 2/27/2013).

S.107: A bill to prohibit the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States until China, India, and Russia implement similar reductions.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

S. 163: A bill to prohibit any regulation regarding carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions reduction in the United States until China, India, and Russia implement similar reductions.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/28/2013).

S.1324: National Energy Tax Repeal Act
This bill would prohibit EPA greenhouse gas regulations resulting from the Presidential Memorandum on Power Sector Carbon Pollutions Standards. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 7/18/2013).

S.1401: Domestic Energy and Jobs Act
This bill would require the development of a plan to increase oil and gas explorations, development, and production on federal land. Of particular relevance, the president would be required to establish a Transportation Fuels Regulatory Committee to produce a report that analyzes the cumulative impacts of EPA greenhouse gas regulations and other related regulations. EPA would be prohibited from finalizing any greenhouse gas regulations until at least 180 days after the report is submitted to Congress. Sponsor: Sen. John Hoeven (R-ND) (introduced 7/31/2013).

S.1514: Saving Coal Jobs Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit greenhouse gas regulations of the power sector unless explicitly authorized by Congress. Sponsor: Sen. Mitch McConnell (D-KY) (introduced 9/17/2013).

S.1536: Agency PAYGO Act of 2013
This bill would require EPA, when proposing a rule to limit greenhouse gas emissions, to include an offset from available funds for projected increased costs to other federal agencies resulting from the proposed rule. EPA would Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Flake (R-AZ) (introduced 9/23/2013).

S.1905: Electricity Security and Affordability Act
This bill would prohibit EPA from requiring new coal plants to use carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions until the technology has been commercially deployed across the United States. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 1/9/2014). Related Bill: H.R.3826.

S.J.Res.30: A joint resolution to disapprove a rule of the Environmental Protection Agency relating to greenhouse gas emissions from electric utility generating units.
See title for summary. This bill would allow for a congressional review of EPA's greenhouse gas standard for new power plants. Past congressional reviews have occurred after a regulation is finalized. Through the introduction of this bill, Sen. McConnell makes two arguments for congressional review of this proposed regulation. First, the Congressional Review Act doesn’t place limitation for Congress to review only finalized rules. Secondly, a quirk in the Clean Air Act has the proposed rule carrying the full effect of a finalized rule and thus should be treated as such. It remains to be seen whether a congressional review could be brought up for this proposed rule. If allowed, the Senate would have 60 days from the date of introduction to vote on this disapproval measure. The bill must be voted on as is and cannot be filibustered, and would need a simple-majority to pass. (Assuming Republicans voted along party lines, six Democrats would need to break ranks to form a simple majority.) If this bill passes the Senate, it’s likely to pass the Republican-controlled House. Since EPA greenhouse gas regulations are the main pillar of the president’s Climate Action Plan, the President will most likely veto this bill if it makes it to his desk. Congress can over-ride the president’s veto with a two-thirds majority in both chambers. Sponsor: Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-KY) (introduced 1/16/2014).

S.AMDT.184: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would not subject United States’ exports that produce greenhouse gases outside of the United States to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Agreed to in the Senate on 3/23/2013 by voice vote.

S.AMDT.359: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would prohibit funding for and essentially block the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gases for the purpose of addressing climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 3/21/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate 47-52

S.AMDT.457: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a point of order against legislation relating to the regulation of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide emissions, until the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Energy Information Administration, and Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that each of China, India, and Russia have proposed, implemented, and enforced measures requiring greenhouse gas, including carbon dioxide, emission reductions that are substantially similar to carbon dioxide emissions reductions proposed for the United States. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.458: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a point of order against legislation that would establish an unrealistic or unattainable standard for carbon dioxide emissions from new coal-fired electricity-generating units. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.706: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would ensure that carbon emission standards be cost effective, based on the best available science and benefit low-income and middle-class families. Sponsor: Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD) (introduced 3/22/2013).

National Flood Insurance Program

H.R.41: To temporarily increase the borrowing authority of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program
This bill, also known as the Hurricane Sandy Relief bill, provides a portion of the disaster relief requested – a $9.7 billion increase in borrowing authority for the National Flood Insurance Program. Sponsor: Rep. Scott Garrett (R-NJ). Action: 1/4/2013: passed in the House 354-67. 1/4/2013: passed in the Senate 1/6/2013: Signed by President and became Public Law No: 113-001.

H.R.3370: Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2013
This bill would reverse many of the provisions of the Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. Of relevance, this bill would prohibit the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) from: increasing flood insurance premiums to no more than 18 percent a year, and FEMA limit the cost of a flood insurance policy to 1 percent of a home’s total coverage. The bill also would repeal the requirement that new policies and policies from recently sold properties reflect full risk rates. This means that for older buildings, subsidized policies can now be passed on from one homeowner to the next and new subsidized NFIP policies can be purchased. In addition, the bill would reinstate grandfathering, where structures subject to increasing flood risk and mapped into a higher flood risk zone would continue to pay the previous, lower premium rate. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Grimm (R-NY). Action: 3/4/2013: passed in the House 306-91. 3/13/2014: passed in the Senate 72-22; 3/21/2014: signed by President and became Public Law No: 113-89.

S.1926: A bill to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012 and to reform the National Association of Registered Agents and Brokers, and for other purposes
Of relevance, this bill would delay for up to four years the premium increases that would have resulted next year from FEMA updating its flood maps. Sponsor: Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ). Action: 1/30/2014: passed in the Senate 67-32.

How Business Can Weather the Storm

By: Sara Kendall, Weyerhaeuser
Publsihed in The Environmental Forum, January 2014

Companies have long engaged in risk assessment and mitigation as a core business practice.

The Intergov­ernmental Panel on Climate Change in its 2012 report “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation” observes that heavy precipitation, heat waves, and droughts have increased over the last half century. Businesses may not have a position on climate change, but they understand how a flood can shut down transportation, a hurricane can topple buildings and powerlines, or extreme temperatures can disrupt markets and threaten op­erations and supply chains.

As noted in a recent report by The Center for Climate and Energy Solu­tions, “Weathering the Storm: Build­ing Business Resilience to Climate Change,” there are significant costs as­sociated with these weather events. In 2012, over 800 major weather-related disasters worldwide led to $130 billion in losses. The most expensive events cost more than $1 billion each. Further, 90 percent of the S&P Global 100 In­dex identified extreme weather and cli­mate change as a current or future risk. Of those, more than one third stated they’ve already experienced adverse ef­fects. It isn’t about whether a company believes in climate change. This is about staying in business.

The C2ES report highlights compa­nies’ efforts to build business resilience. Not surprisingly, the insurance industry is among the first sectors to pay atten­tion. Utility companies are building redundancy and looking at innovative approaches to handling storm surges. Natural resource companies have the added risk that their “factories” are di­rectly exposed to weather conditions.

To get more insight on these issues, I asked Eileen Claussen, president of C2ES, to respond to a few questions raised by the report.

What does business resilience really mean?

"Companies have always navigat­ed a changing business environment. But now they face a changing physical environment, as climate change leads to more frequent and intense heat waves, higher sea levels, and more severe droughts, wildfires, and downpours. Business resilience means assessing and managing these impacts on a com­pany’s facilities, operations, supply and distribution chains, and costs."

Is building business resilience risk management or new business development?

"Both. Extreme weath­er is certainly a risk. It can close facilities, delay production, dis­rupt supply and dis­tribution chains, raise operation and capital costs, and reduce demand. Extreme weather can also keep employees from getting to work, disrupt communication systems, and threaten the availability of power and water supplies. But there also are busi­ness opportunities in becoming more resilient. Some companies are already working on drought-resistant crops, storm-resistant building materials, and weather-related insurance products. Forms of distributed generation, which provided resilient electricity in the after­math of Hurricane Sandy, are promis­ing growth areas as well."

Are you encouraged by what you see be­ing undertaken by businesses to prepare for and respond to extreme-weather events?

"What’s encouraging is that in our dis­cussions with CEOs and members of corporate boards, we’re not being asked, “Is this a problem?” We’re being asked “What should my company do?” Most of the largest global companies are us­ing existing business continuity and emergency management plans to as­sess and manage their climate risks. But only a few companies say they’ve used climate-specific forecasting tools to as­sess how these risks are evolving and the potential business impacts. These com­panies are generally dependent on a key commodity or operate in high-risk locations. So while the vast majority of firms acknowledge risks from extreme weather and climate change, their ac­tions so far to address the risks aren’t going much beyond business as usual."

Where do you think more should be done, and what do you see as the big­gest barriers for companies?

"Companies tell us they need user-friendly, local­ized projections of climate change, and models that can link these projections to specific business impacts. Those in regulated sectors such as water, electric­ity, and insurance need regulators to be open to the case for increased spending on resilience and policies that encourage cus­tomer decisions about sufficient levels of risk mitigation."

Is building business resilience private or public sector work?

"Both. Companies need to manage risks to their facilities and supply and distribution chains, but they also need governments to invest in strengthen­ing resilience of public infrastructure. That’s one reason why we recommend voluntary public-private partnerships to bring together government and busi­ness expertise to develop and improve resilience planning.

My view: The bottom line is that extreme weather events are likely to continue and companies should think about building business resilience in a changing climate. We all will be better off if we’re better prepared."

Sara Kendall is vice president, corporate affairs and sustainability, Weyerhaeuser Com­pany. She can be reached at sara.kendall@ weyerhaeuser.com.

Copyright© 2014 Environmental Law Institute®, Washington, DC. Reprinted with permission from ELI®.

 

Tornadoes and Climate Change

What causes a tornado?

Tornadoes are formed by a combination of atmospheric instability and wind shear.  Instability occurs when warm, moist air is wedged under drier, cooler air aloft. This warm air rises, causing the intense updrafts and downdrafts seen in strong thunderstorms — the incubators of tornadoes. Wind shear refers to changes in wind direction and speed at different elevations in the atmosphere. The combination of instability and wind shear forms the circular air flow that generates a tornado.

Why are there so many in the U.S. Midwest?

The Central United States has an abundance of the ingredients necessary for tornado formation. During the spring, warm tropical air masses from the Gulf of Mexico collide with colder, drier air at higher altitudes to spawn intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms also form into the summer and fall, as the region’s vast plains heat up air near the surface, causing atmospheric instability. These intense thunderstorms act as incubators for tornadoes. Tornadoes occur around the world but are most common in “Tornado Alley” of the Central United States.

Is there a link between climate change and tornadoes?

It is important to keep in mind that climate change has an impact on all weather events.  The effect of the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere cannot be switched off – it influences our seemingly benign “everyday” or “normal” weather as well as the extreme events. 

A specific link between tornadoes and climate change, however, is unclear. It is difficult to identify and diagnose trends in long-term records of tornadoes, since the population in many areas affected by tornadoes has grown (e.g., tornadoes in the early part of the 20th century may have occurred without anyone seeing them) and the technology used to observe tornadoes has improved (e.g., radars help us “see” tornadoes in ways that were not possible many decades ago).

How could climate change affect the frequency or intensity of tornadoes?

Researchers are working to better understand how the building blocks for tornadoes -- atmospheric instability and wind shear -- will respond to global warming. It is likely that a warmer, moister world would allow for more frequent instability. However, it is also likely that a warmer world would lessen chances for wind shear. Recent trends for these quantities in the Midwest during the spring are inconclusive. It is also possible that these changes could shift the timing of tornadoes or regions that are most likely to be hit.

Adding to the difficulty, tornadoes are too geographically small to be well simulated by climate models. Models can simulate some of the conditions that contribute to forming severe thunderstorms that often spawn tornadoes. Multiple studies (e.g., here and here) find the conditions that produce the most severe thunderstorms are likely to occur more often in the in a warmer world, even if the total number of thunderstorms decreases (because of fewer weak storms). However, this work does not conclusively tell us whether tornadoes should follow the same trend as their parent thunderstorms.

Bills of the 112th Congress Concerning Climate Change

The bills, resolutions, and amendments of the 112th Congress dealing with climate change are divided into the following categories:

Bill categories:

CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE

H.RES.672: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the energy, environmental, and foreign policies of the United States should reflect appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to climate change, as documented by credible scientific findings and as evidenced by the extreme weather events of recent years.
This resolution would acknowledge that climate change is happening; that human activities are a primary cause; and that climate change poses intolerable risks to the health, safety, and welfare of current and future generations of the United States. Sponsor: Rep. James P. Moran (D-VA) (introduced 5/31/2012).

S.116: Public Access to Historical Records Act
This bill would direct the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish an official dataset on the historical temperature record. Of particular relevance, it would require persons and entities engaged in global climate research funded by the federal government to utilize the dataset as a source of data on the historical temperature record. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/25/2011).

ADAPTATION

H.R.3314: Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act
This bill would direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop a national strategic action plan to assist health professionals in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change. Specifically, it would direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to: (1) publish a national strategic action plan to assist health professionals to prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change on public health in the United States and other nations, particularly developing nations; (2) revise such plan periodically to reflect new information on the impacts of climate change on public health; (3) establish a permanent science advisory board to provide advice and recommendations on the domestic and international impacts of climate change on public health; and (4) contract with the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine to prepare a report that assesses the needs for health professionals to prepare for and respond to climate change impacts on public health. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 11/2/2011).

H.R.3570: Oceans and Human Health Reauthorization Act of 2011
This bill would expand the interagency oceans and human health research program established under the Oceans and Human Health Act to: (1) direct the President, through the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), to deliver information, products, and services to reduce public health risks and enhance health benefits from the ocean; and (2) include within the term "oceans" the Great Lakes and related coastal areas. Of particular relevance, it would authorize coordination with interagency working groups of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, through the National Science and Technology Council NSTC, to monitor and reduce marine public health problems, including climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 12/6/2011).

H.R.4314: To amend the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 to require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a coastal climate change adaptation planning and response program, and for other purposes.
See bill title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 3/29/2012).

H.CON.RES.15: Expressing the sense of the Congress that the United States Fish and Wildlife Service should incorporate consideration of global warming and sea-level rise into the comprehensive conservation plans for coastal national wildlife refuges, and for other purposes.
This resolution would express the sense of Congress that the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) should incorporate consideration of the effects of global warming and sea-level rise into the comprehensive conservation plan for each coastal national wildlife refuge. Sponsor: Rep. Donna M. Christensen (D-VI) (introduced 2/9/2011). Action: 9/1/2011 House committee/subcommittee actions. Action: Recalled by full committee.

H.CON.RES.84: Recognizing the disparate impact of climate change on women and the efforts of women globally to address climate change.
This resolution would give recognition to the disparate impacts of climate change on women and the efforts of women globally to address these impacts. It would also address the need for balanced participation of men and women in climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts and encourage the use of gender-sensitive frameworks in developing climate change policies. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 11/3/2011).

S.1313: Clean Estuaries Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to reauthorize the National Estuary Program. Of particular relevance, it calls for a comprehensive conservation and management plan and requires the plan to address the impacts of the changing climate on the estuary. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 6/30/2011).

S.1582: Clean Coastal Environment and Public Health Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (commonly known as the Clean Water Act) to require the EPA, upon the publication of the new or revised water quality criteria, to publish a list of all pathogens and pathogen indicators studied in developing such criteria. The bill would also require the EPA to study the long-term impact of climate change on pollution of coastal recreation waters. Sponsor: Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) (introduced 9/20/2011).

S.1601: Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012
This bill proposes appropriations for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2012. Of particular relevance, it would obligate funds for programs to reduce greenhouse gases and support climate change adaptation, and protect forests, other critical landscapes, and biodiversity. Sponsor: Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT) (introduced 9/22/2011).

S.1881: SAFE Act
This bill would establish an integrated Federal program to respond to ongoing and expected impacts of climate variability and change by protecting, restoring, and conserving the natural resources of the United States and to maximize government efficiency and reduce costs, in cooperation with State, local, and tribal governments and other entities. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 11/16/2011).

CARBON TAX

H.R.3242: Save Our Climate Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by imposing a tax on primary fossil fuels based on their carbon content. Sponsor: Rep. Pete Stark (D-CA) (introduced 10/24/2011).

H.R.6338: Managed Carbon Price Act of 2012
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by requiring a Federal emission permit for the sale or use of a fossil fuel or greenhouse gas and returning the funds to taxpayers. Sponsor: Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA) (introduced 8/2/2012).

H.CON.RES.142: Expressing the opposition of Congress to Federal efforts to establish a carbon tax on fuels for electricity and transportation.  See bill title for summary.  Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 11/30/2012).

H.CON.RES.144:  Expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax is not in the economic interest of the United States.  This bill would suggest that a carbon tax would be detrimental to American families and businesses and therefore is not in the best interest of the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 12/7/2012).

S.CON.RES.61: A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax is not in the economic interest of the United States.  This bill would suggest that a carbon tax would be detrimental to American families and businesses and therefore is not in the best interest of the United States.  Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 12/6/2012).

TRANSPORTATION

H.R.1123: TIFIA Expansion Act of 2011
This bill would revise the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) to make eligible for TIFIA funding any projects that are for the design, acquisition, construction, or rehabilitation of one or more transportation projects that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases or have a positive impact on traffic congestion. Sponsor: Rep. Laura Richardson (D-CA) (introduced 3/16/2011).

H.R.1149: To amend the Clean Air Act to include algae-based biofuel in the renewable fuel program and amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to include algae-based biofuel in the cellulosic biofuel producer credit.
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to include algae-based biofuel in the renewable fuel program. It would define "algae-based biofuel" as liquid fuel derived from the biomass of single- or multi-cellular organisms that have lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions that are at least 60% less than the baseline for such emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Brian P. Bilbray (R-CA) (introduced 3/17/2011).

H.R.1380: New Alternative Transportation to Give Americans Solutions Act of 2011
This bill would require the Secretary of Energy to provide funding to improve the performance, efficiency, and integration of natural gas powered motor vehicles and heavy-duty on-road vehicles. It would authorize the Secretary to make grants to manufacturers of light and heavy duty natural gas vehicles for the development of engines that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve performance and efficiency, and lower cost. The bill would also provide tax incentives for vehicles running on alternative and LNG fuels. Sponsor: Rep. John Sullivan (R-OK) (introduced 4/6/2011).

H.R.2036: American Alternative Fuels Act of 2011
This bill would repeal certain barriers to domestic fuel production. Of particular relevance, it would amend the Clean Air Act to require the Administrator of the EPA to consider each gallon of renewable biomass produced from algae to be equal to three gallons of renewable fuel if the algae-based fuel was produced using carbon dioxide captured in a manner that prevented its uncontrolled release into the atmosphere during a separate energy production process. The purpose of this would be to provide an algae-based fuel incentive when calculating the applicable volume of renewable fuel for each calendar year. Sponsor: Rep. Morgan Griffith (R-VA) (introduced 5/26/2011).

H.R.2317: Promoting Green Transportation Infrastructure through Research and Development Act
This bill would promote green transportation infrastructure through research and development. It would move the Office of Climate Change and Environment into the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) of the Department of Transportation (DOT) and would require it to coordinate research, development, and technology transfer activities: (1) that focus on transportation-related emissions and energy reduction strategies, and (2) on the impacts of climate change on surface transportation infrastructure. Sponsor: Rep. David Wu (D-OR) (introduced 6/23/2011).

H.R.2609: Enhancing Livability for All Americans Act of 2011
This bill would establish within the Office of the Secretary of Transportation an Office of Livability. It would require the Office Director to establish a program to award competitive grants to eligible entities involved in surface transportation planning. Projects that reduce greenhouse gases, among other things, would be given priority. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Cohen (D-TN) (introduced 7/21/2011).

H.AMDT.1486: Amendment to H.R. 3409.
This amendment would require the Secretary of Transportation to submit a report to Congress estimating the number of jobs, the fatalities and injuries, and the cost to the economy caused by the "2017 and Later Model Year light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards" rule. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Kelly (R-PA) (offered 9/21/12).  Actions:  Passed/Agreed to in the House by recorded vote: 242-168.

S.187: Biofuels Market Expansion Act of 2011
This bill would require automobile manufacturers to ensure that at least 50% of 2014 and 2015 model year automobiles and light duty trucks manufactured for sale in the United States are dual fueled. It would also amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to make renewable fuel pipelines eligible for loan guarantees for projects that avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Harkin (D-IA) (introduced 1/25/2011).

S.326: Federal Surface Transportation Policy and Planning Act of 2011
This bill would address surface transportation. Of particular relevance, it would set forth certain U.S. policy objectives and goals, including reducing national surface transportation-generated carbon dioxide levels by 40% by 2030. Sponsor: Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV) (introduced 2/10/2011).

S.559: Securing America's Future with Energy and Sustainable Technologies Act
This bill would largely deal with renewable fuel standards. Of particular relevance, the bill would amend the Clean Air Act to revise the renewable fuel program. In particular, it would redefine "advanced biofuel"; and would require the Administrator of the EPA to exempt certain greenhouse gas emission requirements for advanced biofuel and biomass-based diesel on an annual basis for newer facilities. Sponsor: Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) (introduced 3/10/2011).

S.1294: Oil Independence for a Stronger America Act of 2011
This bill would establish a national energy security program in the Executive Office of the President with the purpose of reducing oil consumption by 2030. It would also direct the Secretary of Transportation (DOT) and the Administrator of the EPA to establish joint regulations of fuel efficiency standards and greenhouse gas emissions limitations for certain vehicles. In addition, it would amend the Clean Air Act to direct the EPA Administrator to promulgate regulations to establish national transportation-related goals for reducing oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and it would call for standardized models and methods for local authorities and air quality agencies to address oil savings and emission reduction goals. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR) (introduced 6/29/2011).

S.1602: Changing How America Reduces Greenhouse Emissions (CHARGE) Act
This bill would change how the U.S. reduced greenhouse gas emission. It would amend the Internal Revenue Code to expand the tax credit for new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles to include vehicles that are powered by an alternative electrical energy storage device other than a battery. Sponsor: Sen. Mike Crapo (R-ID) (introduced 9/22/2011).

OIL SANDS PROCUREMENT

H.R.3101: To repeal a limitation on Federal procurement of certain fuels.
This bill would repeal the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum source. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Conaway (R-TX) (introduced 10/5/2011).

H.AMDT.416: Amendment to H.R.2055.
This amendment would prohibit the use of funds to enforce the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX) (offered 6/13/2011). Action: Agreed to by the House by voice vote.

H.AMDT.1078: Amendment to H.R.5326.
This amendment would prohibit use of funds in the bill to enforce the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX) (introduced 5/9/2012). Action: Agreed to by recorded vote: 250 – 173.

H.AMDT.1227: Amendment to H.R.5325.
This amendment would prohibit the use of funds to enforce the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX) (introduced 6/5/2012). Action: Agreed to by voice vote.

S.937: American Alternative Fuels Act of 2011
This bill would repeal the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 5/10/2011).

S.1043: Oil Sands Energy Security Act of 2011
This bill would repeal the provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 which prohibits federal agencies from procuring a fuel that has a greater greenhouse gas footprint throughout its lifecycle than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Sen. Lindsey Graham (SC) (introduced 5/23/2011).

AIRLINE EMISSIONS

H.R.658: FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012
This bill would authorize appropriations for the Federal Aviation Administration for fiscal years 2011 through 2014. Of particular relevance, it would express the sense of Congress that the United States should use all political, diplomatic, and legal tools at the disposal of the United States to ensure that the European Union's carbon pricing requirement for airlines flying into Europe is not applied to U.S. airlines. Sponsor: Rep. John L.Mica (R-FL) (introduced 2/11/2011). Actions: 4/1/2011: Passed/agreed to in House: On passage Passed by recorded vote: 223 – 196. 4/7/2011: Passed/agreed to in Senate: Passed Senate with an amendment by Unanimous Consent. 2/3/2012: Conference report agreed to in House: Yeas and Nays: 248 – 169. 2/6/2012: Conference report agreed to in Senate: Yea-Nay Vote. 75 - 20. 2/14/2012: Signed by President and designated Public Law No: 112-095.

H.R.2594: European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Prohibition Act of 2011
This bill would direct the Secretary of Transportation (DOT) to prohibit U.S airlines' compliance with the European Union's carbon pricing requirement for airlines flying into Europe. Sponsor: Rep. John L. Mica (R-FL) (introduced 7/20/2011). Actions: 10/5/201: Reported by the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and discharged by the Committee on Foreign Affairs. 10/24/2011: Passed in House by voice vote.

H.AMDT.1356: Amendment to H.R.5972. This amendment would prohibit the use of funds to implement U.S airlines' compliance with the European Union's carbon pricing requirement for airlines flying into Europe. Sponsor: Rep. Chip Cravaack (R-MN) (introduced 6/27/2012). Action: Agreed to by voice vote.

S.1956: European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Prohibition Act of 2011

This bill would direct the Secretary of Transportation (DOT) to prohibit an operator of a U.S. civil aircraft from participating in any emissions trading scheme unilaterally established by the European Union if the Secretary determines such prohibition to be in the public interest.  It would also directs the Secretary, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and other appropriate U.S. government officials to use their authority to conduct international negotiations and take other actions in the public interest to ensure that operators of U.S. civil aircraft are held harmless from any such scheme.  Sponsor: Sen John Thune (R-SD).  Actions: 12/7/2011 Introduced in Senate; 8/2/2012 Committee on Science, Commerce, and Transportation.  Reported by Sen Rockefeller with an amendment in the nature of a substitute.  With written report No. 112-195; 9/22/2012 Passed/agreed to in Senate with an amendment by Unanimous Consent.

S.AMDT.2859: An amendment to S.1956, to prohibit the use of taxpayer dollars to pay taxes and penalties imposed on United States air carriers pursuant to the European Union emissions trading scheme.  Sponsor: Sen Benjamin Cardin [D-MD] (introduced 9/22/2012).  Action: 9/22/2012 Senate amendment agreed to by Unanimous Consent.

S.AMDT.2860: An amendment to S.1956, to provide for the reassessment by the Secretary of Transportation of a determination that it is in the public interest to prohibit operators of civil aircraft of the United States from participating in the European Union's emissions trading scheme.  Sponsor: Sen Jeff Merkley [D-OR] (introduced 9/22/2012).  Action: 9/22/2012  Agreed to in Senate by Unanimous Consent.

 

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

H.R.301: New Manhattan Project for Energy Independence
This bill would promote research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of technologies through a system of grants and prizes on the scale of the original Manhattan Project. Of particular relevance, it would encourage the development and implementation of a carbon capture and storage system for large scale coal-burning power plants. Sponsor: Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA) (introduced 1/18/2011).

H.R.1023: No More Excuses Energy Act of 2011
This bill would secure energy for American consumption and transmission. Of particular relevance, it would repeal the minimum gas capture requirement for purposes of the carbon dioxide sequestration tax credit. Sponsor: Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-TX) (introduced 3/10/2011).

H.R.2845: Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011
This bill would address the transportation of energy products by pipeline. Of particular relevance, it would direct the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe minimum safety standards for the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline in a gaseous state. It also would require the Secretary to consider whether current federal safety standards for pipelines that transport carbon dioxide in both a liquid and gaseous state would ensure safety. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Shuster (R-PA) (introduced 9/7/2011). Actions: 12/1/2011: Reported by the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. 12/12/2011: Passed by House by voice vote. 12/13/2011: Passed by the Senate by Unanimous Consent. 1/3/2012: Signed by President into law and designated Public Law No: 112-090.

H.R.3308: Energy Freedom and Economic Prosperity Act
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to terminate certain energy tax subsidies and lower the corporate income tax rate. Of particular relevance, it repeals the tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (KS-4) (introduced 11/2/2011).

H.AMDT.681: Amendment to H.R.2354.
This bill would prohibit the use of funds for the purpose of providing loan guarantees for "carbon capture and sequestration projects.
Sponsor: Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) (offered 7/14/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 68 – 351.

S.234: Strengthening Pipeline Safety and Enforcement Act of 2011
This bill would amend title 49, United States Code, to provide for enhanced safety and environmental protection in pipeline transportation and to provide for enhanced reliability in the transportation of United States energy products by pipeline. In particular, it would direct the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe minimum safety standards for the pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide in gaseous form. (Under current law, the Secretary is required to prescribe minimum standards for the pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide in liquefied form). Sponsor: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) (introduced 1/31/2011).

S.275: Pipeline Transportation Safety Improvement Act of 2011
This bill would address the transportation of energy products by pipeline. Of particular relevance, it would direct the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe minimum safety standards for the pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide in gaseous form. Sponsor: Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) (introduced 2/3/2011). Actions: 7/7/2011: Reported by the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. 10/17/2011: Passed by Senate by Unanimous Consent.

S.699: Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Sequestration Program Amendments Act of 2011
This bill would promote the development of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects. Specifically, it would amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to direct the Secretary of Energy (DOE) to carry out a demonstration program for the commercial application of systems for the capture, injection, monitoring, and long-term geological storage of carbon dioxide from industrial sources. It would also authorize the Secretary of Energy to enter into cooperative agreements to provide financial and technical assistance to demonstration projects and it sets forth requirements for demonstration projects relating to site safety, environmental protection and remediation, and site closure. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) (introduced 3/31/2011).

S.757: Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology Prize Act of 2011
This bill would provide incentives to encourage the development and implementation of technology to capture carbon dioxide from dilute sources on a significant scale using direct air capture technologies. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 4/7/2011).

S.1321: Practical Energy Plan Act of 2011
This bill would establish energy policies intended to reduce dependence on foreign oil. Of particular relevance, it would amend the Internal Revenue Code to allow a new tax credit for investment in a project which captures carbon dioxide that is emitted in connection with power generation or industrial production. Sponsor: Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) (introduced 6/30/2011).

S.2064: Energy Freedom and Economic Prosperity Act
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to terminate certain energy tax subsidies and lower the corporate income tax rate. It would repeal the following: (1) the excise tax credits for alcohol fuel, biodiesel, and alternative fuel mixtures; (2) the tax credits for the purchase of certain plug-in electric vehicles and alternative motor vehicles; (3) the alternative fuel vehicle refueling property tax credit; (4) the tax credits for alcohol used as fuel and for biodiesel and renewable diesel used as fuel; (5) the enhanced oil recovery tax credit and the tax credit for producing oil and gas from marginal wells; (6) the tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration; (7) the energy tax credit; and (8) the tax credits for investment in qualifying advanced coal projects and qualifying gasification projects. It also would terminate, after 2012, the tax credits for the production of electricity from certain renewable resources and from advanced nuclear power facilities. Sponsor: Sen. Jim DeMint (R-SC) (introduced 2/2/2012).

S.3581: To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modify the credit for carbon dioxide sequestration.
This bill would reform the existing 45Q tax credit for companies using captured carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery operations by: designating the owner of the CO2 capture facility as the primary taxpayer; establishing a registration, credit allocation, and certification process; changing the recapture provision to ensure that any regulations issued after the disposal or use of CO2 shall not enable the government to recapture credits that were awarded according to regulations that existed at the time; and authorizing limited transferability of the credit within the CO2 chain of custody, from the primary taxpayer to the entity responsible for disposing of the CO2. Sponsor: Sen. Kent Conrad (D-ND) (introduced 9/20/2012).

S.AMDT.805: Amendment to H.R.2112.
This amendment would set aside certain funding for the construction, acquisition, or improvement of fossil-fueled electric generating plants that utilize carbon sequestration systems. Sponsor: Sen. Thad Cochran (R-MS) (submitted 10/18/2011) (proposed 10/21/2011). Action: Amendment agreed to in Senate by Unanimous Consent.

OTHER CLEAN TECHNOLOGY

H.R.66: Waste-to-Energy Technology Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to allow a 30% energy tax credit for investment in qualified waste-to-energy property. In particular, it would require the Secretary of Treasury to establish standards for waste-to-energy projects. The standards would include whether the projects use the least amount of recyclable materials, will provide the greatest impact in avoiding or reducing air pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions, and whether the projects will have the lowest cost of generated, stored or reduced energy or greenhouse gas emission. Sponsor: Rep. Lloyd Doggett (D-TX) (introduced 1/5/2011).

H.R.230: 21st Century Energy Independence Act of 2011
This bill would authorize the Secretary of Energy to make loan guarantees for cellulosic ethanol production technology development. Specifically, it would instruct the Secretary of Energy (DOE) to seek to ensure the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from the production and use of renewable fuels by 25%. Sponsor: Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX) (introduced 1/7/2011).

H.R.502: Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Act of 2011
This bill would require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Fund. It would also require the Secretary to promote policies that will reduce production costs and encourage innovation, investment, and productivity in the clean energy technology sector, and implement a national clean energy technology export strategy. The Act defines "clean energy technology" to mean a technology related to the production, use, transmission, storage, control, or conservation of energy that will contribute to a stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 1/26/2011).

H.R. 6582: American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act This bill approved such measures as establishing best practices for “smart” electric meters in the federal government, as well as setting federal energy management and data collection standards.  Section 3 of the bill, The Uniform Efficiency Descriptor for Covered Water Heaters section, would ease regulatory burdens by directing the Department of Energy (DOE) to transition from having separate definitions for two types of water heaters, to having a single definition for all covered water heaters. Sponsor: Rep. Robert Aderholt (R-AL).  Action: 12/4/ 2012- Passed in the house 398-2; 12/6/2012- Passed in the Senate without amendment by unanimous consent; 12/18/12: Signed by the President and became publi law.

H.R.849: Light Bulb Freedom of Choice Act
This bill would repeal the phase out of incandescent light bulbs unless the Comptroller General were to make certain specific findings, including the finding that the phase-out of incandescent light bulbs will reduce overall carbon dioxide emissions by 20% in the United States by 2025. Sponsor: Rep. Michele Bachmann (R-MN) (introduced 3/1/2011).


H.R.2208: Smart Grid Advancement Act of 2011
This bill would require the Secretary of Energy (DOE) and the Administrator of the EPA to: assess the potential for cost-effective integration of Smart Grid technologies and capabilities in all products that are reviewed by DOE and EPA for potential designation as Energy Star products; and conduct a best case smart grid analysis by analyzing the potential energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and electricity cost savings that could accrue for such products in specified circumstances. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (introduced 6/16/2011).

H.R.3759: To ensure the viability of a technology described in section 1703(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
This bill would amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005. It would allow the Secretary of Energy (DOE) to take actions that facilitate innovative technology projects that are eligible for loan guarantees- those that avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Jean Schmidt (R-OH) (introduced 12/20/2011).

S.1000: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2011
This bill would introduce plans for greater energy efficiency in building codes. In particular, it suggests the introduction of a building efficiency retrofit loan credit support program, a State partnership industrial energy efficiency revolving loans program, coordination of research and development of energy efficient technologies for industry, sustainable manufacturing initiatives, the study of advanced energy technology manufacturing capabilities in the United States, and authorization of appropriations. Of relevance, certain sections of the bill advocate conducting research on greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (introduced 5/16/2011).

S.1220: Fulfilling U.S. Energy Leadership Act of 2011
This bill would promote clean energy technologies. Of particular relevance, it would direct the Secretary of Energy to establish: a research and development funding program for technologies supporting the development, manufacture, and deployment of plug-in electric drive vehicles and related charging infrastructure and a clean energy standard that promotes the use of renewable and other low-carbon sources of electricity. Sponsor: Sen. Kent Conrad (D-ND) (introduced 6/16/2011).

S.1510: Clean Energy Financing Act of 2011
This bill would promote clean energy technologies. It would improve existing programs by establishing a Clean Energy Deployment Administration that will provide for an attractive investment environment through partnerships with and support of the private capital market in order to promote access to affordable financing for accelerated and widespread deployment of: (1) clean energy technologies; (2) advanced or enabling energy infrastructure technologies; (3) energy efficiency and clean distributed energy technologies in residential, commercial, and industrial applications, including end-use efficiency in buildings; and (4) manufacturing technologies. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) (introduced 8/30/2011).

S.1586: Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Act of 2011
This bill would require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Program. It calls for policies that encourage the production of clean energy technologies and in particular, those that contribute to a stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations through reduction, avoidance, or long-term sequestration of energy-related emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Mark Pryor (D-AR) (introduced 9/21/2011).

S.1764: Make It in America Tax Credit Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to expand the qualifying advanced energy project credit by allocating $5 billion of grants or tax credit amounts in 2011 to manufacturers in the United States of goods and components that are used in alternative energy projects. Sponsor: Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) (introduced 10/31/2011).

S.1895: Upstate Works Act
This bill would require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a program for the award of grants to States to establish revolving loan funds for small and medium-sized manufacturers to improve energy efficiency and produce clean energy technology. Of particular relevance, a clean energy technology is one that, amongst other things, reduces greenhouse gas concentrations. Sponsor: Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY) (introduced 11/17/2011).

S.2146: Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012
This bill would require each electric utility to obtain more than a given percent of the electricity sold annually from "clean energy." To be considered "clean," a generator must either be a zero-carbon source of energy, like renewables and nuclear power, or have a lower carbon intensity than a modern, efficient coal plant. Combined heat and power (CHP) units would also be treated as clean generators. By 2035, utilities would obtain at least 84% of electricity from such sources, either directly generating the electricity themselves or purchasing tradable credits from other generators. Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) (introduced 3/1/2012).

S.2515: Clean Cookstoves Support Act of 2012
This bill would promote the use of clean cookstoves. Of particular relevance, it would include research and development, and improving access to large-scale carbon financing. Sponsor: Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) (introduced 5/7/2012).

PROHIBITING REGULATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

H.R.1: Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011
This bill specifies the uses of appropriated funds. Of relevance, it would eliminate funding for community grants used to develop projects which reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It would also remove funding for Federal Transit Administration grants for energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reductions for FY 2010 and 2011, and would bar funding The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for any activity that would involve denying state permits due to concerns regarding possible climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Harold Rogers (R- KY) (introduced 2/11/2011). Committees: House Appropriations; House Budget. Action: 2/19/2011 Passed/agreed to in House vote: 235-189.

H.R.97: Free Industry Act
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act, excluding from the definition of the term "air pollutant" carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, or sulfur hexafluoride; and would declare that nothing in the Act shall be treated as authorizing or requiring the regulation of climate change or global warming. Sponsor: Rep. Marsha Blackburn (R-TN) (introduced 1/5/2011).

H.R.153: Ensuring Affordable Energy Act
This bill would prohibit funding for the EPA from being used to implement or enforce: a cap-and-trade program; or any statutory or regulatory requirement pertaining to emissions of one or more greenhouse gases from stationary sources that would be issued or becomes applicable or effective after January 1, 2011. Sponsor: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (introduced 1/5/2011).

H.R.199: Protect America's Energy and Manufacturing Jobs Act of 2011
This bill would prohibit the Administrator of the EPA, during the two-year period after this Act's enactment, from taking any action under the Clean Air Act with respect to any stationary source permitting requirement or requirement concerning standards of performance for new stationary sources relating to carbon dioxide or methane. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 1/6/2011).

H.R.279: To prohibit any Federal agency or official, in carrying out any Act or program to reduce the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on climate change, from imposing a fee or tax on gaseous emissions emitted directly by livestock.
This bill would prohibit any federal agency or official from imposing a fee or tax on gaseous emissions emitted directly by livestock in carrying out any Act or program to reduce the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Fortenberry (R-NE) (introduced 1/12/2011).

H.R.750: Defending America's Affordable Energy and Jobs Act
This bill would prohibit the President or any federal agency head from promulgating regulations that control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It would also prohibit the executive branch from enforcing or implementing any law that considers the effects of GHG emissions on the climate, unless the law is necessary to protect the public from imminent harm. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Walberg (R-MI) (introduced 2/16/2011).

H.R.909: Roadmap for America's Energy Future
This bill would hold the proposed draft of the Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2010-2015 to have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior as final and compliant with environmental law. Of particular relevance, the bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 by repealing a former limitation on federal contracting and allowing for the acquisition of alternative fuels. It would also amend the Clean Air Act to redefine greenhouse gas, and would prohibit regulation of a greenhouse gas for climate change purposes. Lastly, it would amend the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to prohibit consideration of the climate change-related impact of a greenhouse gas upon any species of fish, wildlife, or plant. Sponsor: Rep. Devin Nunes (R-CA) (introduced 3/3/2011).

H.R.910: Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to prohibit the Administrator of the EPA from promulgating any regulation concerning, taking action relating to, or taking into consideration the emission of a greenhouse gas (GHG) to address climate change. It would also exclude GHGs from the definition of "air pollutant" for purposes of addressing climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Fred Upton (R-MI) (introduced 3/3/2011). Actions: 4/1/2011: Reported by the Committee on Energy and Commerce. 4/7/2011: Passed the House by a vote of 255 – 172.

H.R.1287: 3-D, Domestic Jobs, Domestic Energy, and Deficit Reduction Act of 2011
Of particular relevance, this bill would prohibit consideration of the impact of greenhouse gas on any species of fish or wildlife or plant for any purpose in the implementation of an environmental impact statement. It would also direct the Secretary of State to expedite the permit request for the Keystone XL pipeline without considering greenhouse gas impacts during the permit review process. Sponsor: Rep. Rob Bishop (R-UT) (introduced 3/31/2011).

H.R.1292: Energy Production Freedom Act
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to exclude from the definition of the term "air pollutant" carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, or sulfur hexafluoride; and it would declare that nothing in the Act shall be treated as authorizing or requiring the regulation of climate change or global warming. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Cuellar (D-TX) (introduced 3/31/2011).

H.R.1705: Transparency in Regulatory Analysis of Impacts on the Nation Act of 2011
This bill would require the President to establish the Committee for the Cumulative Analysis of Regulations that Impact Energy and Manufacturing in the United States. The committee would analyze and report on the cumulative and incremental impacts of covered rules and actions of the EPA concerning air, waste, water, and climate change for each of calendar years 2016, 2020, and 2030. Sponsor: Rep. John Sullivan (R-OK) (introduced 5/4/2011).

H.R.1777: Consumer Relief for Pain at the Pump Act
This bill would set forth a deadline for action on certain permit applications under existing Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases. It would amend the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 to repeal the moratorium on oil and gas leasing in certain areas of the Gulf of Mexico. It would also instruct the Secretary of the Interior to offer for lease areas made available as a result of such repeal. Of particular relevance, it would declare that nothing in the bill addressing pollution control should be treated as authorizing or requiring the regulation of climate change or global warming. Sponsor: Rep. Robert Latta (R-OH) (introduced 5/5/2011).

H.R.2401: Transparency in Regulatory Analysis of Impacts on the Nation Act of 2011
This bill would require the President to establish the Committee for the Cumulative Analysis of Regulations that Impact Energy and Manufacturing in the United States. In particular, the Committee would analyze and report on the impacts of certain covered actions of the EPA concerning air, waste, water, and climate change. "Covered actions" would include those taken on or after January 1, 2009 by EPA, a state or local government, or a permitting agency, as a result of a Clean Air Act (CAA) application with respect to an air pollutant that is identified as a greenhouse gas in the CAA. Sponsor: Rep. John Sullivan (R-OK) (introduced 6/24/2011). Actions: 9/15/2011: Reported by the Committee on Energy and Commerce. 9/23/201: Passed in House by recorded vote: 249 – 169.

H.R.2603: Maintaining Agency Direction on Financial Fraud Act
This bill would prohibit the enforcement of a climate change interpretive guidance issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Posey (R-FL) (introduced 7/20/2011).

H.R.3323: Freeing Agriculture to Reap More Act
Of particular relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to prohibit, subject to exemptions, the Administrator of the EPA from taking any action with respect to the emission of a greenhouse gas (GHG) to address climate change. It would also exclude GHGs from the definition of "air pollutant" for purposes of addressing climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Huelskamp (R-KS) (introduced 11/2/2011).

H.R.3409: Coal Miner Employment and Domestic Energy Infrastructure Protection Act
This bill would, among other things, prohibit the Administrator of the EPA from regulating greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Johnson (R-OH) (introduced 11/14/2011). Action: Passed/Agreed to in the House by recorded vote: 233-175.

H.R.6172: To prohibit the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from finalizing any rule imposing any standard of performance for carbon dioxide emissions from any existing or new source that is a fossil fuel-fired electric utility generating unit unless and until carbon capture and storage is found to be technologically and economically feasible.
See title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 7/24/2012).

H.RES.606: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the notice signed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Lisa Jackson on March 27, 2012, entitled "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units."
This resolution would express the sense of the House of Representatives that: (1) Americans rely on coal and the inexpensive energy it provides for nearly half of our energy needs; (2) the proposed rule entitled "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units" will likely lead to increased energy costs, resulting in the loss of American jobs, making American businesses less competitive, and damaging our nation's economic recovery; and (3) the EPA should not be setting energy policy with environmental regulations that dictate fuel choices for new power plants. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Austria (R-OH) (introduced 3/29/2012).

H.AMDT.101: Amendment to H.R.1. This amendment would prohibit the use of funds by the EPA to implement, administer, or enforce any statutory or regulatory requirement pertaining to emissions of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (offered 2/18/2011). Action: Agreed to by recorded vote: 249 – 177.

H.AMDT.757: Amendment to H.R.2584. This amendment would reduce the funding for the EPA's greenhouse gas registry program by $6,246,000 and apply the savings to the spending reduction account. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 7/27/2011). Action: Agreed to by recorded vote: 235 – 191.

H.AMDT.1465: Amendment to H.R.4078. This amendment would keep the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) from enforcing or issuing interpretive guidance on climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Posey (R-FL) (offered 7/25/2012). Action: Agreed to by recorded vote: 245 – 171.

S.15: A bill to prohibit the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States until China, India, and Russia implement similar reductions.
This bill would prohibit the Administrator of the EPA or the head of any other federal agency from regulating carbon dioxide emissions until the Secretary of Commerce certifies that China, India, and Russia have initiated carbon dioxide emission reduction standards that are substantially similar to those proposed for the United States. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/25/2011).

S.228: Defending America's Affordable Energy and Jobs Act
This bill would prohibit the President or any federal agency head from promulgating regulations that would control emissions of a greenhouse gas (GHG), or taking action relating to the climate effects of GHG emissions. The bill stipulates that there is an exception if it is determined that action is necessary to protect human health from imminent danger and substantial harm. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 1/31/2011).

S.231: EPA Stationary Source Regulations Suspension Act
This bill would prohibit the Administrator of the EPA, until the end of the two-year period beginning after this Act's enactment, from taking action under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to regulate carbon dioxide or methane from stationary sources. It also would prohibit any action taken by the Administrator to make carbon dioxide or methane a pollutant subject to regulation under the CAA for any source other than a new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine. Sponsor: Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (WV) (introduced 1/31/2011).

S.482: Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011
Of relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to prohibit the Administrator of the EPA from promulgating any regulation concerning the emission of a greenhouse gas (GHG) to address climate change. It would also exclude GHGs from the definition of "air pollutant" for purposes of addressing climate change. The following activities would be exempt from the prohibition: implementing and enforcing GHG standards and fuel efficiency standards for light, medium, and heavy duty engines and vehicles; implementation of the renewable fuel program, research and development relating to climate change, ozone protection, and monitoring and reporting of carbon dioxide emissions. Sponsor: Sen. James Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 3/3/2011).

S.609: Comprehensive Assessment of Regulations on the Economy Act of 2011
This bill would establish the Cumulative Regulatory Assessment Committee within the Department of Commerce. The Committee would assess the energy and economic impacts of various federal regulatory directives, including: the implementation of any provision relating to the interstate or international transport of air pollution with respect to any national ambient air quality standard, attainment of any such standard, new source performance standards, hazardous air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, cooling water intake structures, effluent guidelines for regulating the discharge of pollutants, the handling and disposal of coal combustion residuals, the regulation of fuels, or regional haze or reasonably attributable visibility impairment under the Clean Air Act or any other environmental regulations expected to have a significant impact on the electric power sector, the petroleum refining sector, the petrochemical production sector, pipeline facilities regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOT) or EPA, exploration, production, or transportation of oil and natural gas, or any other manufacturing sector. Sponsor: Sen. James Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 3/17/2011).

S.706: 3-D, Domestic Jobs, Domestic Energy, and Deficit Reduction Act of 2011
Of particular relevance, the bill would prohibit consideration of the impact of greenhouse gas on any species of fish or wildlife or plant for any purpose in the implementation of an environmental impact statement. It would also direct the Secretary of State to expedite the permit request for the Keystone XL pipeline without considering greenhouse gas impacts during the permit review process. Additionally, it would amend the Clean Air Act, declaring that carbon dioxide, methane from agriculture or livestock, and water vapor are not air pollutants. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 3/31/2011).

S.892: Consolidation of Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency Act of 2011
This bill proposes to consolidate the Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA to establish the Department of Energy and the Environment (DEE), with the primary mission of ensuring U.S. security and prosperity. Joint efforts would include protecting human health, safeguarding the natural environment, and addressing U.S. energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through science and technology solutions. Of particular relevance, the bill would prohibit the Secretary from providing grants to communities to develop and implement projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in fiscal years 2012-2016. Sponsor: Sen. Richard Burr (R-NC) (introduced 5/5/2011).

S.1393: Maintaining Agency Direction on Financial Fraud Act
This bill would prohibit the enforcement of a climate change interpretive guidance issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 7/20/2011).

S.1720: Jobs Through Growth Act
Of particular relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to declare that carbon dioxide, methane from agriculture or livestock, and water vapor are not air pollutants. Sponsor: Sen. John McCain (R-AZ) (introduced 10/17/2011).

S.1752: Freedom to Breathe Act of 2011
This bill would void the final rule entitled "Use of Ozone-Depleting Substances; Removal of Essential-Use Designation (Epinephrine)." Specifically, it would prohibit the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) from reissuing the rule in substantially the same form or issuing a new rule that would prohibit the production and distribution of oral pressurized metered-dose inhalers because they may emit greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Pat Roberts (R-KS) (introduced 10/20/2011).

S.2199: Grow America Act of 2012
This bill would direct the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Committee on Finance to report tax reform legislation for individual and business taxpayers. It would require such legislation to lower the tax burden on individuals and businesses and to simplify the tax system. It would also amend the Clean Air Act to redefine "air pollutant" to exclude carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, or sulfur hexafluoride (greenhouse gases). Sponsor: Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT) (introduced 3/15/2012).

S.2365: WEST Act
Of particular relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to define a "greenhouse gas" (GHG) as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, or any other substance subject to regulation, action, or consideration under the Act to address climate change. It would also prohibit the Administrator of the EPA from promulgating any regulation concerning, taking action relating to, or taking into consideration the emission of a GHG. Lastly, it would exclude GHGs from the definition of "air pollutant" for purposes of addressing climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) (introduced 4/25/2012).

S.3473: Sequestration Prevention Act of 2012
This bill would repeal automatic spending cuts (sequestration) put into place by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and would offset the cost at a total savings estimate of $61.2 billion over ten years. Of particular relevance, s. 601 would prohibit any funding for climate change or global warming. Sponsor: Sen. James Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 8/1/2012).

S.RES.111: A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that Congress should reject any proposal for the creation of a system of global taxation and regulation.
This resolution would express the sense of the Senate that Congress should reject any proposal for the creation of, amongst other things, a global cap-and-trade system or other climate regulation that would punish businesses in, and limit the competitiveness of, the United States. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 3/29/2011).

S.AMDT.183: Amendment to s.493.
This amendment would prohibit the Administrator of the EPA from promulgating any regulation concerning, taking action relating to, or taking into consideration the emission of a greenhouse gas to address climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-KY) (submitted 3/15/2011) (proposed 3/15/2011). Action: The amendment was not agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 50 - 50.

S.AMDT.215: Amendment to S.493.
This amendment would suspend, until the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, any EPA action under the Clean Air Act with respect to carbon dioxide or methane pursuant to certain proceedings, other than with respect to motor vehicle emissions. Sponsor: Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV) (submitted 3/15/2011) (proposed 4/6/2011). Action: The amendment was not agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 12 - 88.

S.AMDT.236: Amendment to S.493.
This amendment would prohibit the regulation of greenhouse gases from certain sources. Sponsor: Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT) (submitted 3/16/2011) (proposed 4/6/2011). Action: The amendment was not agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 7 - 93.

S.AMDT.277: Amendment to S.493.
This amendment would suspend, for 2 years, any EPA enforcement of greenhouse gas regulations, to exempt American agriculture from greenhouse gas regulations, and to increase the number of companies eligible to participate in the successful Advanced Energy Manufacturing Tax Credit Program. Sponsor: Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) (submitted 3/30/2011) (proposed 4/6/2011). Action: the amendment was not agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote 7 - 93.

NARROWING AMENDMENTS

H.AMDT.240: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would require an EPA study to determine the long term impact of a complete ban on EPA's authority to regulate greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 161 – 259.

H.AMDT.241: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would delete the section of the underlying bill that would block EPA from regulating greenhouse gas emissions, and replace it with new procedures for finalizing greenhouse gas regulations. Sponsor: Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 157 – 266.

H.AMDT.242: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would clarify that voluntary programs addressing climate change classify as exceptions to the bill's prohibitions of EPA's climate change activities. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Agreed to by voice vote.

H.AMDT.243: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would remove water vapor from the definition of "greenhouse gas," strike the removal of existing EPA findings and rules, and exempt all auto standards from the prohibitions of the underlying bill. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Cuellar (D-TX) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by voice vote.

H.AMDT.247: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would suspend the rescission of EPA's authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions if EPA found climate change would increase ground level ozone, dangerous extreme weather events, an increase in dangerous food and waterborne pathogens, and other significant threats to public health. Sponsor: Rep. Jared Polis (D-CO) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 168 – 257.

H.AMDT.249: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would prevent the rescission of EPA's authority to regulate greenhouse gases from going into effect until the EPA Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, certified that the consequences of not regulating greenhouse gas emissions, and its subsequent impact on climate change, including the potential to create sustained natural and humanitarian disasters and the ability to likely foster political instability where societal demands exceed the capacity of governments to cope, do not jeopardize American security interests at home or abroad. Sponsor: Rep. Bobby L. Rush (D-IL) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 165 – 260.

H.AMDT.250: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would include a study to determine whether regulations of the EPA under the Clean Air Act to address climate change, if not repealed or otherwise made unauthorized by the underlying bill, would cause greenhouse gas leakage and reduce the international competitiveness of United States producers of energy-intensive products. Sponsor: Rep. Michael F. Doyle (D-PA) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 173 – 250.

H.AMDT.251: Amendment to H.R.910.
This amendment would codify the EPA's "Tailoring Rule" in order to exempt farms, small businesses, and small- and medium-sized stationary sources from greenhouse gas regulation. Sponsor: Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI) (offered 4/6/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 160 – 264.

H.AMDT.721: Amendment to H.R.1938.
This amendment would strike the paragraph of the findings section of the underlying bill which says that analysis using EPA models shows that the Keystone XL pipeline will result in no significant change in total United States or global greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Bobby L. Rush (D-IL) (offered 7/26/2011). Action: Failed by recorded vote: 164 - 261, 1 Present.

H.AMDT.723: Amendment to H.R.1938.
This bill would include a finding stating that the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement estimates that the Keystone XL pipeline would increase carbon pollution associated with United States fuel use by up to 23,000,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Rep. Donna Christensen (VI) (offered 7/26/2011). Action: Failed by voice vote.

H.AMDT.1485: Amendment to H.R. 3409.
This amendment would strike the language that would repeal EPA's scientific finding that carbon pollution endangers the public health and welfare. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) (offered 9/21/12).  Actions: Failed in the House by recorded vote: 178-229.

H.AMDT.1487: Amendment to H.R. 3409.
This amendment would allow the EPA to take any action using its authority under the Clean Air Act to promulgate any regulation or to take into consideration the emission of a greenhouse gas to address climate change, if such action would increase North American energy independence by reducing demand for oil. Sponsor: Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) (offered 9/21/12).  Actions:  Failed in the House by recorded vote: 164-246.

OTHER

H.R.680: To prohibit United States contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
This bill would prohibit the President from making contributions on behalf of the United States to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sponsor: Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO) (introduced 2/11/2011).

S.2465: Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2013
This bill proposes appropriations for energy and water development and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2013. Of particular relevance, s. 313 of the bill states that it would amend the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to repeal, for baseline periods 1987-1990, the requirement that the Secretary develop an inventory of the national aggregate of greenhouse gases. Sponsor: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) (introduced 4/26/2012).

Agreeing on the problem, if not the solution

Despite the very different views of the majority and minority parties in the Senate, there was in fact a fair degree of agreement among the witnesses at today’s hearing on climate science and local adaptation.

During the climate science portion of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee hearing, both the majority and minority witnesses agreed that the Earth has warmed over the past 120 years. With the recent publication of the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project by former skeptic Richard Muller, there are now four (NOAA, NASA and Hadley are the others) major global temperature records that are in agreement that the Earth has warmed 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit over the past 50 years.

Senate gets back to climate science

The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee holds a hearing tomorrow called “Update on the Latest Climate Change Science and Local Adaptation Measures.” This is the first Senate hearing focused directly on climate science in the 112th Congress, and we hope it won’t be the last. Climate change is happening, the news from peer-reviewed science is increasingly daunting, and the public needs to hear what credible scientists are learning about the risks and potential solutions.

Mapping extreme weather across the U.S.

Today we’re updating our online map providing an overview of extreme weather events in the United States since 1990.  The map highlights memorable examples of extreme heat, heavy precipitation, drought, and wildfire, four types of events with clear trends connected to climate change.

What You Can Do - Individual Solutions for Curbing GHG Emissions

Get Informed

Scientists agree that the burning of fossil fuels is causing global warming. Since these fuels are burned for energy, and everyone uses energy, everyone can help stop global warming just by using less energy. Think about the things you do each day that use energy. The lights in your house use electricity. The TV and computer use electricity. The washing machine, dishwasher and dryer all use gas or electricity. Every time you ride in your car, it uses gasoline. There are many actions we can take in our daily lives to combat global climate change. Read about the different ways you can help in the following sections.

Learn More:

Kids Page

 

Let Your Voice be Heard

In addition to the actions you can take in your home and on the road, engaging in public decision-making is an important way to combat global climate change. Every day, on the local, state, and national levels, decisions are being made that can have a positive effect on combating climate change. Energy production and efficiency standards are just a couple of the topics that are often open for public input. Learn what your local and national representatives are doing about global warming and let them know the issue is important to you.


Across the country, states and regions are adopting policies to address climate change. On the national front, more than 195 bills that deal with energy or climate issues were introduced in the 2007-2008 Congress. One of the most important actions you can take to fight global climate change is to become educated about what your local, state, and national representatives are doing about it. Then, contact your representatives to let them know how important global climate change is to you. You can contact your national legislators at the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Learn More:

U.S. States & Regions

Climate Change & Congress

 

Make Personal Commitments

Everyone shares responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Through normal, everyday activities, the average American produces over 22 tons of CO2 a year – nearly 4 times the world average. Almost every activity in modern society relies on energy produced from fossil fuels, which represent the largest source of human-caused emissions. It is useful to understand how certain behaviors and lifestyle choices influence the amount of CO2 being released so that appropriate steps and actions can be taken. Significant reductions can often be made through simple, cost-saving measures in and around your home.

The EPA’s online emissions calculator is a good resource for learning more about which activities in your life are responsible for releasing CO2. Most emissions are associated with heating and cooling, lighting and appliance use, and driving and flying. But when added together, other smaller sources can also be significant. Your refrigerator alone is responsible for 8% of typical home-based energy use.

Follow the links below to view basic tips that will help you reduce your energy use, cut down on your CO2 emissions, and save you money.

Reduce Your Carbon Footprint:

Additional Resources

About U.S. Federal

The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) seeks to inform the design and implementation of federal policies that will significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and promote clean energy. Drawing from its extensive peer-reviewed published works, in-house analyses on the design of climate change policies and clean energy policies, and tracking of current legislative proposals, the Center provides research, analysis, and recommendations to policymakers in both Congress and the Executive Branch.

The Center regularly meets with members of the federal Administration, U.S. Senate, and House of Representatives and their staff to discuss climate science, impacts, economics, policy, regulation, and legislation. C2ES also holds widely-attended Capitol Hill briefings on these topics, often bringing in experts from academia, business, and government to provide a broad range of perspectives.

About Science and Impacts

The Earth’s average surface temperature has increased by 1.4°F (0.8°C) since the early years of the 20th century. The 10 warmest years on record (since 1850) have all occurred since 1998. The 10 warmest years to date are 2010, 2005, 1998, 2003, 2002, 2009, 2006, 2007, 2004, 2001.

The scientific consensus is that global warming is largely the result of increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. The growth in emissions is caused by human activities, primarily fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use, such as agriculture and deforestation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects an increase of future average global surface temperature in the range of 2.0°F to 11.5°F (1.1°C to 6.4°C) by 2100, with warming in the United States expected to be about 50 percent greater. This warming, along with the associated changes in precipitation, drought, heat waves, and sea-level rise, will have important consequences for the U.S. environment and economy. Globally, climate change presents many challenges, particularly in poorer countries far less able to cope with a changing climate and in low-lying countries where sea level rise will cause severe damage to society and ecosystems.

C2ES's Science and Impacts Program educates the public and policymakers about the climate system and the environmental and economic implications of climate change for the United States, including impacts on natural ecosystems and resources, social systems, human health, and infrastructure. C2ES publishes a series of peer-reviewed scientific reports written by experts on the environmental impacts of climate change. Workshops sponsored by C2ES explore the implications of environmental impacts for climate change policy. C2ES constantly builds relationships with members of the scientific, policy, and business community to increase awareness regarding the science and impacts of climate change.

The Pew Center's Science and Impacts Program aims to advance policymakers' understanding of the climate system and the consequences of global warming for the United States.
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