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Achieving the very large reduction in greenhouse gas emissions that scientists say is needed to avoid the worst effects of climate change will not be easy. It will require action across all sectors of the economy, from electricity and transportation to agriculture. A portfolio of technologies exists today for achieving cost-effective emission reductions, and emerging technologies hold promise for delivering even more emission reductions in the future. The successful development of these technologies will require research, incentives for producers and consumers, and emission reduction requirements that drive innovation and guide investments. Governments at all levels need to encourage short-term action to reduce emissions while laying the groundwork for a longer-term technology revolution.