U.S. States & Regions

States and regions across the country are adopting climate policies, including the development of regional greenhouse gas reduction markets, the creation of state and local climate action and adaptation plans, and increasing renewable energy generation. Read More
 

Multi-State Climate Initiatives

Many states have reached across borders to collaborate in in efforts to address climate change. Across the United States and Canada, multi-state climate initiatives have been designed and implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and spur public and private investment in clean energy, energy efficiency and sustainable infrastructure. Multi-state initiatives can be more effective and efficient in reducing greenhouse gases across a broad area because they provide predictable rules and avoid duplicative processes. Click on the initiatives below to learn more:

 

North America 2050

Summary: A diverse array of states and provinces launched North America 2050: A Partnership for Progress (NA2050) in March 2012. NA2050 participants are committed to policies that move their jurisdictions toward a low carbon economy while creating jobs, enhancing energy security, protecting public health and the environment, and demonstrating climate leadership. NA2050 is a multi-state, multi-regional collaborative working toward mitigating the impacts of climate change and advancing clean energy, carbon capture and sequestration, and industrial energy efficiency benchmarking. C2ES serves as one of five nonprofit advisory groups for the NA2050 partnership.

History: NA2050 is the successor to the 3-Regions Initiative, which was a collaboration among members of the three North American regional cap-and-trade programs: the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the Western Climate Initiative.

NA2050 is composed of six working groups, which collectively facilitate dialogue among governments, private sector entities, NGOs, and academic institutions. Each working group provides topical support to participating jurisdictions based on members’ priorities. C2ES is lead advisor to the Industry 2050 Working Group and the Sequestration Working Group.

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Western Climate Initiative, Inc.

Summary: The Western Climate Initiative (WCI) is a collaboration of jurisdictions working together to identify, evaluate, and implement emission-trading programs to mitigate the impacts of climate change at a sub-national level. Current WCI members are British Columbia, California and Quebec.

In November 2011, WCI transitioned into WCI, Inc., a nonprofit corporation that provides administrative and technical assistance to support the implementation of state and provincial greenhouse gas emission trading programs. Under the auspices of WCI Inc., California and Quebec linked their cap-and-trade programs on Jan. 1, 2014. WCI, Inc. manages the Compliance Instrument Tracking Service System, administers allowance auctions, conducts independent market monitoring of allowance auctions, and certifies allowance and offset certificate trade transactions.

History: On Feb. 26, 2007, Govs. Napolitano of Arizona, Schwarzenegger of California, Richardson of New Mexico, Kulongoski of Oregon, and Gregoire of Washington signed an agreement establishing the WCI, a joint effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and address climate change. Later, the governors of Utah and Montana, as well as the premiers of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec joined as Partners. An additional 14 jurisdictions joined as Observers, including the U.S. states of Alaska, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nevada, and Wyoming; the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan; and the Mexican states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, and Tamaulipas. In the Initiative's Memorandum of Understanding, WCI Partners agreed to jointly set a regional emissions target and establish a market-based system—such as a cap-and-trade program covering multiple economic sectors—to help meet this target. 

The WCI was built on the efforts of individual participating states and provinces, as well as two  regional predecessors: the Southwest Climate Change Initiative of 2006, made up of Arizona and New Mexico, and the West Coast Governors' Global Warming Initiative of 2004 made up of California, Oregon, and Washington. In August 2007, the Western Climate Initiative announced its regional, economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions target of 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020, or approximately 33 percent below projected business-as-usual levels. The regional target was designed to be consistent with existing targets set by individual member states and does not replace these goals. Emissions covered are the six primary greenhouse gases identified by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UFDCCC): carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. 

In September 2008, the WCI released Design Recommendations for a Cap-and-Trade Program to begin in 2012. The program was designed cover emissions from electricity and large industrial and commercial sources in 2012, and would also cover emissions from transportation and other residential, commercial, and industrial fuel use beginning in 2015. In July 2010, the WCI Partners released the Design for the WCI Regional Program, a comprehensive strategy designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, stimulate development of clean-energy technologies, create green jobs, increase energy security, and protect public health. It is a plan to reduce regional greenhouse gas emissions to 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020, and is the culmination of two years of work by seven U.S. states and four Canadian provinces. It builds on the recommendations for a regional cap-and-trade program that the Partners released in September 2008. 

As of 2013, WCI is made up of British Columbia, California, and Quebec. The remaining jurisdictions that originally signed on to WCI are no longer participating.  

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Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative 

Summary: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory U.S. cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide. Currently, the program is composed of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. RGGI sets a cap on carbon dioxide emissions from power plants throughout the region, and allows regulated entities to trade carbon emission allowances to achieve compliance.

Between 2009 and 2013, carbon emissions from power plants in the RGGI region decreased by 45 percent as a result of fuel switching to natural gas, increased use of renewable energy, and a reduction in regional energy consumption. Following a comprehensive Program Review, RGGI adjusted the program cap to achieve an annual 2.5 percent emissions reduction each year between 2014 and 2020. A study released in November 2011 shows that RGGI has resulted in net economic benefit of $1.6 billion to participating states due to increased energy efficiency and other factors.

History: On Dec. 20, 2005, the governors of seven Northeast states announced the creation of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). The governors of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont signed a Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to implement the first mandatory U.S. cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide.

On Jan. 18, 2007, Massachusetts Gov. Deval Patrick signed the RGGI MOU, thereby committing his state to join RGGI. On Jan. 30, Gov. Donald Carcieri announced that Rhode Island would join RGGI. On April 6, 2006, Maryland Gov. Robert L. Ehrlich Jr. signed into law the Healthy Air Act. The bill required the governor to include the state in RGGI by June 30, 2007. Maryland became the 10th official participating state in April 2007 with Gov. Martin O'Malley's signing of the RGGI Memorandum of Understanding. New Jersey announced in May 2011 that it would be exiting the program, a move that was complete by the beginning of 2012. 

Following New Jersey’s withdrawal, RGGI announced its plan to lower the regional cap from 165 short tons of CO2 in 2013, to 91 million short tons in 2014, decreasing annually by 2.5 percent. For more information, please see our RGGI page.

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Pacific Coast Collaborative

Summary

Established in 2008, the Pacific Coast Collaborative (PCC) is a cooperative agreement among the leaders of Alaska, British Columbia, California, Oregon, and Washington to leverage clean energy innovation and low-carbon development to reduce the effects of climate change on the regional economy. Together, the PCC jurisdictions are comprised of 53 million residents, with a total GDP of $2.8 trillion, which is equal to the 5th largest economy in the world (France). Through the PCC, leaders from participating jurisdictions can coordinate, propose, and adopt policy frameworks aimed at generating investments in renewable energy, climate resilience, low-carbon transportation infrastructure, and environmental conservation. Unlike its larger regional counterparts such as the Midwestern Governors Association, the PCC is focused singularly on low-carbon development, while also emphasizing coordination of state-level climate policies that can achieve the broader goals presented in PCC agreements.

History

The PCC was established on June 30, 2008, to strategically confront the economic risks climate change poses to the Pacific Coast region. The original agreement signaled a commitment by each jurisdiction to deploy more renewable energy and to promote environmental and coastal conservation. On Feb. 12, 2010, the PCC issued Vision 2030, which outlines the group’s effort to lead North America in clean energy innovation, climate adaptation, and sustainable infrastructure. The plan was centered on increased deployment of solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and tidal energy, as well as projects geared toward widespread adoption of energy-efficient technology. It also introduced a plan to develop high-speed rail infrastructure between San Diego and Vancouver, as well as fuel-efficiency benchmarks and permitting standards for vehicles. Lastly, the plan identifies climate adaptation as a central element to ensuring economic stability by calling for cooperative efforts to research and develop long-term adaptation strategies. On Nov. 14, 2012, the PCC announced a joint effort to facilitate investments in sustainable infrastructure projects with $1 trillion in project loan financing through the West Coast Infrastructure Exchange

On Oct. 18, 2013, the group signed the Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy, a nonbinding agreement to align climate regulations and market-based measures in each jurisdiction. The plan presents a number of policies to promote clean energy deployment, carbon pricing, revised regional greenhouse gas reduction targets for 2030, and low-carbon transportation. Several provisions highlight the need for regional cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as those supportive of a high-speed regional rail line along the Pacific Coast, and an integrated electrical smart-grid to support increased renewable generation. Finally, the plan calls for a harmonized approach to U.S. and international climate negotiations, and each jurisdiction has agreed to participate in a subnational coalition to secure a broader climate agreement at Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC in Paris in 2015.

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Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

Summary: The Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord (MGGRA) was a commitment launched in 2007 by the governors of six Midwest states and the premier of one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through a regional cap-and-trade program and other complementary measures. Members of MGGRA are not currently pursuing their greenhouse gas goals through the Accord. 

History: On Nov. 15, 2007, the governors of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, as well as the Premier of Manitoba, signed the Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord (MGGRA) as full participants. The Governors of Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota joined the agreement as observers. On Nov. 27, 2008, the Premier of Ontario also joined as an observer. Under the Accord, members agreed to establish regional greenhouse gas reduction targets, including a long-term target of 60 to 80 percent below 2007 emission levels, and develop a multi-sector cap-and-trade system to help meet the targets. Participants also agreed to establish a greenhouse gas emissions reduction tracking system and implement other policies, such as low-carbon fuel standards, to aid in reducing emissions. 

After releasing a model cap-and-trade rule in April 2010, the states and province in MGGRA did not continue pursuing their greenhouse gas goals through the Accord.

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Transportation and Climate Initiative 

Summary: The Transportation Climate Initiative (TCI) is a collaboration of 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic jurisdictions  to develop a clean energy economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. TCI aims to "expand safe and reliable transportation options, attract federal investment, lower transportation costs, improve overall air quality and public health, and mitigate the transportation sector's impact on climate change." TCI is made up of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and the District of Columbia. Transportation currently accounts for roughly 40 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic and Northeast. 

History: On June 16, 2010, eleven Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states and the District of Columbia announced a Declaration of Intent for the TCI. The jurisdictions established the Transportation, Energy, and Environment Staff Working Group to direct the initiative's planning and seek public and private funding for projects. The Georgetown Climate Center facilitated the initial meeting of the TCI and continues to support the effort.

On Oct. 19, 2011, the TCI jurisdictions announced that the creation of the Northeast Electric Vehicle Network to bolster economic growth, maintain the region’s leadership in the clean energy economy, reduce the area’s dependence on oil, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. The 11 participating jurisdictions will promote all clean vehicles and fuels and facilitate planning for and the deployment of electric vehicle charging stations and related infrastructure throughout the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. 

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Broad Coalition Offers Plan to Accelerate Adoption of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Press Release
March 13, 2012
Contact: Tom Steinfeldt, steinfeldtt@c2es.org, 703-516-0638

Broad Coalition Offers Plan to Accelerate Adoption of Plug-In Electric Vehicles
C2ES-Led Group Recommends Strategies to Connect PEVs to the U.S. Electrical Grid

WASHINGTON, D.C. – A coalition including automakers, electric utilities, environmental groups, and state officials outlined joint recommendations today to accelerate the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) nationwide.

The PEV Dialogue Group, convened last year by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES), presented its recommendations at a Washington, D.C. event featuring remarks by group members from General Motors, Southern California Edison, the state of Michigan, and the Natural Resources Defense Council.

The group’s report, An Action Plan to Integrate Plug-in Electric Vehicles with the U.S. Electrical Grid, provides a roadmap for coordinated public and private sector action at state and local levels to ensure that PEV owners can conveniently plug in their cars without overtaxing the grid.  It recommends steps to ensure compatible regulatory approaches nationwide, balance public and private investments in charging infrastructure, and better inform consumers about PEVs.

“With plug-in electrics, we now have a mass-produced alternative to the internal combustion engine,” said C2ES president Eileen Claussen. “This is a major opportunity to tackle both energy security and climate change, and to put American industries and workers out front on a truly transformative technology. But for PEVs to succeed, we need all the right parties working together. That’s what this plan is all about.”

Nearly 18,000 PEVs were sold in the United States last year; over the next year or two, all of the major automakers plan to have models on the road. Some PEVs like the Nissan Leaf rely entirely on battery power, while others like the Chevy Volt have small backup engines to extend their driving range.

Broad deployment of PEVs, which use little or no gasoline, can significantly reduce U.S. reliance on imported oil and curb harmful tailpipe emissions. If accompanied by the gradual decarbonization of U.S. electricity, PEVs can also significantly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. But growth of the PEV market faces major challenges, including new infrastructure letting owners plug in at home and on the road while ensuring the reliability of the grid.

The PEV Dialogue Group’s Action Plan includes recommendations to:

  • Encourage state public utility commissions and other policymakers to establish a consistent regulatory framework nationwide to harmonize technical standards; streamline the installation of household and commercial charging stations; and use electricity rate structures to promote charging at off-peak hours.
  • Assist local policymakers and stakeholders in assessing local needs, developing tailored strategies, and optimizing public and private investment in charging infrastructure.
  • Provide consumers with reliable information on the costs and benefits of PEVs and the choices among PEV technologies.

“Instead of policies that increase our addiction to oil, we need to provide Americans more transportation choices,” said Roland Hwang, transportation director at the Natural Resources Defense Council. “Putting millions of electric vehicles on the road will cut drivers’ fuel bills, help the auto industry, keep billions of dollars in the U.S. economy, and curb emissions of dangerous air pollutants. By working together across the political spectrum to enact this Action Plan, we can create a vibrant market for electric cars, restore U.S manufacturing leadership and create thousands of jobs.”

“The U.S. electrical grid is a national energy security asset and has the excess capacity, off-peak to support millions of electric vehicles right now,” said Edward Kjaer, director of PEV readiness, at Southern California Edison, a major electric utility. “With the PEV Action Plan, C2ES has spearheaded an important effort that will help us all use this critical domestic resource for transportation and begin to reduce this nation's dependence on imported oil."

“GM is glad to work with groups such as C2ES that are working to advance the adoption of electric vehicles through real-world best practices and stakeholder education,” said Michael Robinson, vice president of sustainability and global regulatory affairs at GM.

“It has been a pleasure to work with the other members of the PEV Dialogue Group and identify policies that will help seamlessly integrate plug-in electric vehicles with our electrical grid,” said Orjiakor Isiogu, a member of the Michigan Public Service Commission. “I look forward to continuing my work within the group and helping it properly balance the needs of electricity customers and the opportunity presented by PEVs.”

C2ES will work with the PEV Dialogue Group and others to promote implementation of the Action Plan. Over the coming months, C2ES is working with the Washington State Department of Transportation to advise transportation officials in seven states on steps to accelerate PEV adoption, and with the U.S. Department of Energy to support DOE-funded Clean Cities Coalitions working in dozens of communities across the country to develop local PEV deployment plans.


About C2ES
The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an independent non-profit, non-partisan organization promoting strong policy and action to address the twin challenges of energy and climate change. Launched in November 2011, C2ES is the successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, long recognized in the United States and abroad as an influential and pragmatic voice on climate issues. C2ES is led by Eileen Claussen, who previously led the Pew Center and is the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.


PEV Dialogue Group Participants

  • A123 Systems
  • AASHTO
  • Argonne National Laboratory
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Better Place
  • Center for Climate and Energy Solutions
  • City of Raleigh, NC
  • Daimler
  • U.S. Department of Energy
  • Edison Electric Institute (EEI)
  • Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA)
  • Electrification Coalition
  • Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
  • General Electric
  • General Motors
  • Georgetown Climate Center
  • Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission*
  • Johnson Controls Inc.
  • Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
  • Michigan Public Service Commission*
  • National Wildlife Federation
  • North Carolina Department of Transportation
  • Northeast Utilities System
  • Natural Resources Defense Council
  • NRG Energy
  • PJM Interconnection
  • Rockefeller Brothers Fund
  • Rocky Mountain Institute
  • Southern California Edison
  • U.S. Department of Transportation
  • University of Delaware
  • Washington State Department of Transportation

*The role of these group members must be limited to technical contribution because of their organizational function.

National Governors Association Report Finds Clean Energy Progress in All States

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On January 31, 2012, the National Governors Association released a report that details all state-level clean energy actions implemented between June 2010 and August 2011.  The report, entitled Clean State Energy Actions: 2011, highlights how all states are working hard to promote clean energy despite the weak economy and state budget challenges.  The report identifies state actions in seven categories:

  • Energy efficiency
  • Clean electricity
  • Alternative fuels and vehicles
  • Lead-by-example
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Clean energy research, development, and demonstration
  • Clean energy economic development

According to the report, nearly all states improved energy efficiency and increased clean electricity generation.  In addition, Arkansas, Maryland and forty other states promoted alternative fuels and vehicles.  Delaware, Louisiana, North Carolina and twenty-three additional states initiated lead-by-example programs, in which state governments promote clean energy by using it in state buildings and operations, bringing the total to fifty-one states and territories.  Oregon, Washington, Vermont and nine other states took new action to address greenhouse gas emissions. Forty-five states have now addressed emissions in some way by participating in greenhouse gas registries or initiatives, setting emission reduction targets, authorizing commissions to study the impact of climate change, and/or developing a climate action plan.  Finally, Colorado, Mississippi, Virginia, and twenty-five other states established a new economic development policy to advance the clean energy industry, such as a tax incentive for clean manufacturing or a workforce development program to foster clean energy jobs. 

Overall, the report emphasizes that states have adopted policies that best fit their unique needs and opportunities.  While states will likely struggle with fiscal hardship in the coming years, the National Governors Association believes that states will still look to reduce energy costs and invest in clean energy economic development.

Clean State Energy Actions Press Release

Climate Leadership Conference

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February 29-March 1 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the headline sponsor, the first annual Climate Leadership Conference will be held from February 29-March 1, 2012, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The conference will bring together leaders from business, government and academic institutions, and the non-profit community interested in exchanging ideas and information on how to address climate change while simultaneously running their operations more competitively and sustainably.

The conference includes a gala to honor recipients of the Climate Leadership Awards, a new national awards program to recognize exemplary corporate, organizational, and individual leadership in response to climate change. U.S. EPA, in partnership with C2ES, The Climate Registry (The Registry), and the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), sponsor the awards. 

Featured conference speakers include:

  • Nancy Sutley – Chair, White House Council on Environmental Quality
  • Gina McCarthy – Assistant Administrator, Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Mary Nichols – Chair, California Air Resources Board
  • Eileen Claussen – President, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

Click here for complete speakers list and detailed conference agenda.

Program Highlights

  • Network with leaders from the public and private sectors, including federal and state government officials, industry leaders, and nonprofit experts
  • Attend the Climate Leadership Awards Gala, which is held in conjunction with the conference
  • Hear insights from winners of the 2011 Climate Leadership Awards for the Supply Chain, Organizational and Individual Leadership categories

Conference attendees will learn about and exchange solutions on topics including

  • Leveraging Clean Energy Opportunities
  • Managing Climate Risks and Building Resilience
  • Supply Chain Strategies
  • Disclosures and Questionnaires
  • Setting and Achieving GHG Reduction Goals Education & Engagement
  • Strategies Making the Business Case for Climate Response

Any sponsorship or advertisements appearing in these materials do not imply endorsement, recommendation, or favor by the United States Government or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

February 2012 Newsletter

Click here to view our February 2012 newsletter.

Learn about the new international coalition aimed reducing short-lived climate pollutants, a framework for carbon capture and storage, and how federal agencies are incorporating climate adaptation into their decision making, the start of a clean energy standard conversation, and more in C2ES's February 2012 newsletter.

The Bingaman Clean Energy Standard: Let the Conversation Begin

This is the first blog post in a multi-part series on the Bingaman Clean Energy Standard. Read part 2.

When the idea of a “clean energy standard” (CES) was first proposed a couple of years ago, it was viewed as the Republican alternative to both a renewable energy standard and a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program. Many Republicans favored this approach because it included not just renewable energy, but also traditional Republican priorities such as nuclear power, hydropower, and clean coal.

Following the defeat of cap-and-trade legislation, President Obama began to see merit in this approach too. He proposed a Clean Energy Standard in his State of the Union in 2011 and again this year.

In a few days, Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM), chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, is expected to introduce a CES bill. If it is anything like the long line of earlier Bingaman bills, it will be a thoughtful balance of economic, energy, and environmental objectives, and – to those of us who read a lot of legislation – beautifully written.

C2ES Report Offers Comprehensive Approach to Measure CO2 Reductions from Carbon Capture and Storage

Press Release                                        
February 14, 2012
Contact: Tom Steinfeldt, 703-516-4146

NEW REPORT OFFERS COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO ACCOUNT FOR
CO2 REDUCTIONS FROM CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE
Center for Climate and Energy Solutions’ Framework Lays Groundwork
for Future Energy & Climate Policy Action

WASHINGTON, D.C. – A new report released today by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) provides the first-ever comprehensive framework for calculating carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reductions from carbon capture and storage (CCS). The framework equips policymakers and project developers with common methodologies for quantifying the emission impacts of CCS projects.

CCS involves a suite of technologies that can be used to prevent CO2 from power plants and large industrial facilities from entering the atmosphere. The three main steps are capturing and compressing the CO2 , transporting it to suitable storage sites, and injecting it into geologic formations for secure and permanent storage. CCS technology has the potential to achieve dramatic reductions in CO2 emissions from the electricity sector, including from coal-fueled power plants.

“Ensuring reliable, affordable energy while reducing carbon emissions is a critical challenge, and in the years ahead, carbon capture and storage will likely be an essential part of the solution,” said C2ES President Eileen Claussen. “This report provides an important technical foundation for crafting policies to put this technology to work to meet our energy, climate and economic objectives.”

The report, Greenhouse Gas Accounting Framework for Carbon Capture and Storage Projects, includes detailed methodologies to calculate emission reductions at each stage of the CCS process: CO2 capture, transport, and injection and storage. The methods were developed with input from CCS experts in industry, academia, and the environmental community (see report for list of participants). 

For CO2 capture, the report outlines methods for multiple CO2 sources, including electric power plants with pre-combustion, post-combustion, or oxy-fired technologies, and industrial facilities involved in natural gas production, fertilizer manufacturing, and ethanol production. For CO2 transport, the framework focuses on pipelines, which are the most viable transportation option for large-scale CCS. With respect to the geological storage of CO2, the framework applies to saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields, and enhanced oil and gas recovery sites.

Worldwide, 15 large CCS projects are in operation or under construction, according to the Global CCS Institute. Their combined CO2 storage capacity exceeds 35 million tons a year, roughly equivalent to preventing the emissions from more than 6 million cars from entering the atmosphere each year. Four CCS projects – three in the U.S. and one in Canada – have started construction since 2010, and three of these are linked to enhanced oil recovery operations. Globally, 59 additional projects are in the planning stage.

C2ES also is facilitating the National Enhanced Oil Recovery Initiative, a group of policymakers and stakeholders seeking to increase U.S. domestic oil production and energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using captured CO2. Recommendations for federal and state policy to ramp up CO2-EOR will be released later this year.

Additional background about CCS is available in C2ES’s Climate Techbook. For more information about the climate and energy challenge and the activities of C2ES, visit www.C2ES.org.

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About C2ES
The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an independent non-profit, non-partisan organization promoting strong policy and action to address the twin challenges of energy and climate change. Launched in November 2011, C2ES is the successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, long recognized in the United States and abroad as an influential and pragmatic voice on climate issues. C2ES is led by Eileen Claussen, who previously led the Pew Center and is the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Enters Second Phase

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In 2012, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) will look to build upon the success of its first three-year compliance period and make key improvements as it enters a second three-year compliance period.  In an effort to strengthen the existing initiative design and achieve desired emission reductions, RGGI states are retiring allowances not sold in the first phase, increasing the reserve price of allowances, conducting a comprehensive review, and considering a reduction to the number of available allowances to ensure further emission cuts.  RGGI’s goal is to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from power plants in member states by 10 percent by 2018 through a cap-and-trade program.

On January 17, 2012, RGGI member states announced several actions to reduce the number of available emission allowances.  First, auctions in 2012 will only offer allowances for 2012 and none from the next compliance period (2015 to 2017).  Second, at least five states (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) agreed to retire unsold allowances from the first compliance period, which could otherwise have been used in later compliance periods.  With fewer total allowances available for auction, cumulative emissions will be forced downward.  Many states have faced an oversupply of allowances as emissions from power plants are approximately 30 percent less than the cap, owing in part to the economic recession and investment in natural gas and renewable electricity generation (Regional Cap-and-Trade Effort Seeks Greater Impact by Cutting Carbon Allowances). 

Beyond withholding future compliance period allowances and retiring unsold allowances, RGGI may also consider additional measures to increase the market pressure on electricity generators to reduce carbon emissions.  In 2012, the reserve price for allowances will rise from $1.89 to $1.93 (RGGI CO2 Allowance Auctions - Frequently Asked Questions). Tightening annual emission caps may be an additional option identified by RGGI’s first mandated program review, which will be completed in summer 2012. 

The economic benefits from RGGI’s first compliance period were significant.  An Analysis Group report released in November 2011 estimated that RGGI produced $1.6 billion in economic value for its member states between 2009 and 2011.  The proceeds from sales of RGGI allowances have funded energy efficiency improvement programs, community-based renewable energy projects, assistance to low-income customers, education and job training programs, and state general budget funds.

 

RGGI Press Release - 2012 Auction Update

"New York voiding gas credits"

 

Practical Energy Solutions

The White House Jobs Council recently released its year-end report outlining a plan to strengthen the United States’ economic future. While the tax and regulatory reform proposals are bound to cause disagreements, the Council developed pragmatic recommendations regarding energy’s role in improving the economy. The report recognizes the state of politics and low-carbon energy deployment, while highlighting the economic opportunities—including energy savings, leading emerging technology markets, and enhanced energy security—made possible by transitioning to a low-carbon economy. The Council’s energy recommendations include:

New York Proposes Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Power Plants

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On January 18, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) released a proposed rule, known as Part 251, which would limit carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from new electric generating facilities over 25 megawatts and at existing facilities that undergo expansions of at least 25 megawatts. The threshold for expanded power plants is designed to allow coal plants to pursue efficiency improvements without triggering the emissions limit. The proposed rule would not affect electricity imports. If this rule is adopted, New York would become one of a few leading states with a specific GHG emission standard for individual power plants.

Specifically, the proposed regulation:

  • Includes both input-based and output-based standards, which each facility owner or operator may choose between;
  • Sets a CO2 emission limit of 925 pounds per megawatt-hour (lbs/MWh) (output-based) or 120 pounds per million BTU (lbs/MMBTU) (input-based) for most new or expanded baseload plants. This limit is based on the expected emissions from a well-operated and well-maintained natural gas combined cycle combustion turbine with some oil use as a backup;
  • Sets a limit of 1450 lbs/MWh (output-based) or 160 lbs/MMBTU (input-based) for simple cycle combustion turbines – these types of plants are built to be cycled on and off more quickly, but have higher emissions. This limit is based on the expected emissions of a well-operated and well-maintained simple cycle combustion turbine which fires either natural gas or distillate oil;
  • Includes recordkeeping, monitoring and reporting requirements.

In addition to these standardized requirements, the DEC will set case-specific CO2 emission limits for non-fossil fuel power plants, defined as any plant with a fuel mix of less than 70% fossil fuel.

The proposed rule is open to public comment through March 15, 2012, and there will be public hearings in early March. The rule is authorized by the Power NY Act of August 4, 2011, which requires a final rule by August 4, 2012, and will help New York achieve its goal of an 80% greenhouse gas emission reduction between 1990 and 2050.

Electricity generation is responsible for 19 percent of greenhouse gases emitted in New York, and New York emits 0.9 percent of the world’s carbon emissions. In 2008, the state emitted 47 million tons of CO2 , but in 2010 this amount fell to 42 million tons. Further emissions reductions are expected through New York’s participation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), which will reduce regional emissions by 10 percent by 2018.

Promulgation of the proposed rule would make New York the first state in the Northeast to set power plant CO2 emission standards and place it among states with similar rules such as California, Washington, Montana, and Oregon.

 

Proposed Rule Part 251 Homepage

Proposed Rule Regulatory Impact Statement (includes benefits, costs, and justification of proposed rule) and Summary

Long Island Press Story

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