U.S. States & Regions
States and regions across the country are adopting climate policies, including the development of regional greenhouse gas reduction markets, the creation of state and local climate action and adaptation plans, and increasing renewable energy generation. Read More
On December 12, 2007, U.S. District Court Judge Anthony Ishii ruled against a group of automobile manufacturers challenging California’s authority to set and implement greenhouse gas emissions standards for motor vehicles. The auto industry had argued that the state's proposed regulations amount to setting fuel efficiency requirements for new vehicles, and that such efficiency standards can be set only by the federal government - specifically, the Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. A similar ruling was issued earlier this year in Vermont against automobile industry plaintiffs challenging that state’s authority to adopt California’s vehicle emissions standards. California’s proposed standards would be gradually phased in between model-years 2009 and 2016, and by model-year 2016, would require reductions of tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions from new motor vehicles of approximately 30 percent. California and 16 other states are poised to adopt the standards, assuming the federal EPA grants California’s waiver request and barring any additional legal challenges.
On November 19, 2007, Governor Brian Schweitzer announced that Montana will become the seventh U.S. state to join the Western Climate Initiative (WCI), a joint effort to reduce regional greenhouse gas emissions and address climate change. The Initiative was established in February 2007 by the governors of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington; Utah and the Canadian Provinces of British Columbia and Manitoba joined the initiative in the spring of 2007. Under the agreement, by 2008 the member states and provinces will establish a cap-and-trade system to aid in meeting their regional greenhouse gas emissions target of 15% below 2005 levels by 2020. The participants will also set up an emissions registry and tracking system.
At the same time, Governor Schweitzer also announced a new initiative seeking a 20% reduction in energy consumption by Montana state agencies by the year 2010. In addition to reducing energy use, Schweitzer also asked agencies to apply a Montana vehicle efficiency standard by shifting state vehicle fleets to achieve an average of 30 miles per gallon or better.
On November 15, 2007, six states and one Canadian Province established the Midwestern Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord. Under the Accord, members agree to establish regional greenhouse gas reduction targets, including a long-term target of 60 to 80 percent below current emissions levels, and develop a multi-sector cap-and-trade system to help meet the targets. Participants will also establish a greenhouse gas emissions reductions tracking system and implement other policies, such as low-carbon fuel standards, to aid in reducing emissions. The Governors of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, as well as the Premier of the Canadian Province of Manitoba, signed the Accord as full participants; the Governors of Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota joined the agreement as observers to participate in the development of the cap and trade system. The Accord represents the first Midwestern regional agreement among U.S. states to collectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and will be fully implemented within 30 months.
The agreement was announced at the end of the two-day MGA Energy Security and Climate Change Summit in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during which representatives from the Midwestern states – including the nine states mentioned above, as well as Nebraska and North Dakota – discussed the various low-carbon energy options available in their region. In addition to the Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord signed by six states and Manitoba, eight members of the MGA signed the Energy Security and Climate Stewardship Platform. The Platform lists goals for energy efficiency improvements, low-carbon transportation fuel availability, renewable electricity production, and carbon capture and storage development. Member states also signed six additional resolutions. These measures establish a Carbon Management Infrastructure Partnership, a Midwestern Biobased Product Procurement System, coordination across the region for biofuels development, and a working group to pursue a collaborative, multi-jurisdictional transmission initiative.
Statement by Eileen Claussen, President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change
November 15, 2007
The announcement today by the Midwestern Governors is an important development - both environmentally and politically. This agreement fills a geographic gap in regional climate action, sending a clear message that the U.S. states are increasingly united behind efforts to reduce our emissions. The Midwest emits relatively high levels of greenhouse gases and is especially dependent on two economic sectors that are absolutely critical to addressing climate change -- coal and agriculture. Constructive Midwest engagement dramatically increases the likelihood of developing a sensible national policy.
On November 8, 2007, the state of California sued the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for its failure to act on the state’s vehicle emissions standards waiver request. In its lawsuit, California argues that the agency should be compelled to issue a decision on the request, which was originally made by the California Air Resources Board in December 2005. California has special authority under the Federal Clean Air Act to set its own vehicle emissions standards that go beyond federal standards, though it must first obtain a waiver from the U.S. EPA. Other states can then choose to follow either California’s regulations or the EPA’s. California’s proposed greenhouse gas emissions standards for motor vehicles would be gradually phased in starting in 2009, and by 2016 would require reductions of tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions from new motor vehicles of approximately 30 percent. The fourteen other states poised to adopt the California standards will join as interveners in the lawsuit. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger warned the federal government six months earlier that the state would file the suit if the U.S. EPA continued to delay action on the waiver request. The EPA has repeatedly stated that it will reach a decision by the end of 2007.
On November 7, 2007, Colorado Governor Bill Ritter released Colorado’s Climate Action Plan. Under the plan, the Governor will issue an executive order by the end of the year establishing a statewide greenhouse gas emissions reductions target of 20 percent below 2005 levels by 2020, and an 80 percent reduction below 2005 levels by 2050. The plan also urges accelerated federal investments in clean coal technologies and state investments in clean coal technologies. Other actions under the plan include an agricultural carbon offset program, Colorado’s adoption of California’s vehicle GHG emissions standards, an Industrial Energy Efficiency Program for large industrial emitters, and mandatory reporting of GHG emissions by major emitters. The Colorado plan also addresses adaptation measures, with a primary focus on water resources and forestry.
On November 1-2, 2007, 100 mayors attended the 2007 Mayors Climate Protection Summit in Seattle, Washington. At the Summit, the United States Conference of Mayors (USCM) and the Clinton Foundation’s Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI) announced a new partnership. All 1,100 cities in the USCM will have the opportunity to purchase energy-efficient and clean-energy products and technologies through CCI’s existing purchasing consortium. Mayors at the conference also urged Congress to complete energy efficiency legislation by the end of the year. As of November 2007, 710 mayors, representing 25 percent of the U.S. population, have signed the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement. Signatories commit to reduce the carbon emissions of their communities seven percent below 1990 levels by 2012, in line with targets proposed for the United States as a whole under the Kyoto Protocol.
On October 29, 2007, a number of governments from around the world announced the formation of the International Carbon Action Partnership. Each of the member governments has either established or is in the process of designing cap and trade systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Partnership will provide a forum for members to share experiences, research, and best practices on the design of trading schemes. This will help the different trading systems develop in a compatible manner to facilitate the transition to a potential global carbon market in the future. The 10 U.S. state members are Arizona, California, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Washington. The other members include nine European Union countries, the European Commission, two Canadian provinces, New Zealand and Norway.
The California Air Resources Board announced a set of early measures to help bring the state closer to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, as required by California law under AB 32. The new regulations will go into effect in 2010 and will affect the trucking, cement, aluminum, and semiconductor industries as well as ports, consumer aerosol products, and tire inflation requirements. These measures are expected to reduce emissions about 3 million metric tons annually. The board also accepted rules developed by the California Climate Action Registry to standardize the methodology used by nonprofit groups to quantify the carbon credit granted for growing trees or changing management practices. Rules for state, corporate, or private forest practices are not yet developed.
California Air Resources Board
In the first half of October 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed 10 bills promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Solar Water Heating and Efficiency Act of 2007 (AB 1470) requires the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) to create financial incentives for solar hot water systems that will replace the use of natural gas water heaters. Similar incentives already exist for replacing electric hot water heaters under the California Solar Initiative. The incentives will be funded by a surcharge on the bills of most natural gas customers. A second bill, AB 1109, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to adopt energy efficiency standards for general purpose lights, and is expected to phase out the use of incandescent light bulbs in the state. Under AB 662 and AB 1560, the CEC is allowed to set water standards for appliances and required to incorporate water standards into the state’s existing building standards. For utilities, AB 1103 requires record keeping of energy use for nonresidential buildings, and AB 1613 authorizes the CPUC to require that utilities buy excess power from combined heat and power systems. AB 118 establishes a $2 raise in vehicle registration fees to fund the new Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program, which will provide financial assistance to develop and deploy low carbon fuels and vehicles. AB 809 limits the use of state funds for hydrogen vehicles and expands the state’s definition of hydropower eligible for renewable energy requirements to include hydropower installed in water supply systems and incremental efficiency improvements at existing facilities. AB 532 extends the original deadline established in 2001 legislation (SBX2 82) for existing state buildings and parking facilities to install solar energy systems where feasible from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2009. All new state buildings or parking facilities will also have to install solar energy systems where feasible if construction begins on or after January 1, 2008, extended in AB 532 from the original date of January 1, 2003. Finally, SB 1036 eliminates the Renewable Resource Trust Fund and refunds customers.
Governer's Press Release
Legislation: AB 1470, AB 1109, AB 662, AB 1103, AB 1560, AB 118,
AB 809, AB 532, AB 1613, SB 1036