U.S. States & Regions

States and regions across the country are adopting climate policies, including the development of regional greenhouse gas reduction markets, the creation of state and local climate action and adaptation plans, and increasing renewable energy generation. Read More
 

Press Release: Pew Center Convenes State-Federal Conference

Press Release
February 27, 2008
Contact: Tom Steinfeldt, (703) 516-4146

PEW CENTER CONVENES STATE – FEDERAL CONFERENCE
Participants Call for a Shared Approach to Climate Change Policy

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in conjunction with the Pew Center on the States, convened its annual conference February 25-26 that focused on innovative approaches to climate change. This year’s conference addressed critical issues between states and the federal government in developing policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The conference featured speeches by Minnesota Gov. Tim Pawlenty, New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson, and Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts. Pawlenty and Richardson, considered possible Republican and Democratic vice presidential contenders respectively, highlighted their states’ clean energy efforts and the different roles state and federal governments can play to advance emission reduction policies.   In his remarks, Kerry cited the immediate need for federal leadership on climate change and encouraged grassroots efforts at state and local levels to pressure federal officials to act.

The two-day conference included several panel discussions about key climate change topics confronting state and federal leaders. Significant discussion focused on the design of a cap-and-trade program, which is slated for implementation in three regional programs involving 23 states and is the centerpiece of pending legislation in Congress. The regional efforts – the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeast; the Western Climate Initiative; and the Midwestern Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord – are viewed largely as laboratories for a future national climate plan.

“We need to strike a balance between what states and the federal government do best, and reflect this in a strong national climate policy,” said Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. “States are demonstrating their unique ability to serve as proving grounds for sensible climate action. But the federal government must show leadership if we are to achieve the most cost-effective and comprehensive path to reduce emissions.”

Additional topics addressed at the conference included low-carbon transportation solutions, electricity options, and smart growth. Adaptation, an increasingly important concern for state and federal policymakers, also received close attention. Nearly 200 participants attended, including state environment and energy officials, top advisers to regional climate initiatives, Congressional staff, business leaders, and experts from nonprofit organizations, among others.

As part of its Climate Change 101 series, the Pew Center released two new briefs: Cap and Trade 101 and Adaptation 101 at the event. A new paper addressing state options for a low-carbon coal policy, part of the Pew Center’s Coal Initiative Series, was also announced. A forthcoming paper by World Resources Institute Senior Fellow Franz Litz, Toward a Constructive Dialogue on Federal and State Roles in U.S. Climate Change Policy, was released for public review.

Conference presentations are available online at www.c2es.org/statefed08.

Eileen Claussen Remarks at Pew Center State-Federal Workshop

Speech by Eileen Claussen, President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change
 
Pew Center State and Federal Workshop
WASHINGTON, DC

 
February 25, 2008


On behalf of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States, I’d like to welcome you to our conference: Innovative Approaches to Climate Change: A State-Federal Workshop.  I welcome the opportunity to be with all of you and kick-off this very timely conference that will examine the specific roles of Washington and the states in addressing the urgent challenge of global climate change. 

As most of you know, what is happening on this issue right now is this: In the absence of federal action, states have taken the lead in designing regulatory approaches to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change.   And while it is good that the states are acting - it does not mean the federal government is irrelevant. In fact, both Washington and the states have specific and important roles to play.  And I will spend a few minutes this morning discussing what these different yet complementary roles look like and mean. 

But first, let’s examine why states are acting.  I think there are three reasons:  risks, opportunities and authority.  States are very close to what is happening - they see the risks that climate change poses to their states – not just higher temperatures and heat waves, but more coastal flooding, more intense rainfall, higher levels of drought, increases in the number and intensity of wildfires, and more.  But many states also see opportunities in responding proactively to climate change, including developing new industries in alternative energy, applying information technology to buildings to improve energy efficiency, and improving the quality of life for their citizens through smarter growth. 

States also recognize that they have real authority to reduce emissions.  They are empowered to take action. States can promote clean electricity and energy efficiency with policy tools such as net metering, green pricing, and public benefit funds. States have authority to adopt building efficiency codes, which can have a major impact when you consider that energy use in buildings produces about 43 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. States also have great control over smart growth policies and transportation policies aimed at reducing emissions from cars and trucks.  These are examples of things that fall within a state’s authority and in many instances, outside the authority of the federal government. 

But what about the federal government?  Washington most assuredly has been absent from the effort to reduce U.S. emissions, as I have said.  But there are signs this will change, probably in the next couple of years.  And so, when the federal government finally chooses to act, is there a risk that it might come in and supercede all the good and thoughtful work of the states?

I think not.  I think the question of federal vs. state action on climate change is not a question of either/or.  My thesis is that the states can do some things (indeed they are better suited to do some things) and Washington can do other things that only Washington can do. And I think there is more than enough responsibility and hard work to go around.

For example, certain actions, if they are taken nationally, can be more cost-effective. And we also have to keep in mind that there is no guarantee that all states would act individually. In order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and to do so both cost-effectively and to the levels scientists say are necessary, I do believe we need the federal government to step up to the plate at the same time that the states are doing their part.

One of the things that Washington can and should do is to create a national cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Cap-and-trade has been embraced by business and political leaders from both parties as the best and most cost-effective way to achieve real, specified reductions in emissions.  But cap-and-trade works best when it covers many emission sources. 

The more states, or the more countries, that are part of the system, the more you can achieve efficiencies of scale and the more you can lower the cost of reducing emissions.   This is why many states are reaching across their borders to establish regional cap-and-trade programs.  They understand that the economics of cap-and-trade get better when more states and more communities are involved.  But if regional approaches are better than going state-by-state, it is also true that a national approach is better than doing this on a region-by-region basis.

Ultimately, we need a national cap-and-trade program like the one making its way through the U.S. Senate. This plan aims to reduce emissions across the country and levels the playing field for businesses in all 50 states. It ensures that we’re able to take full advantage (as a nation) of the cheapest emission reductions we can find. 
 
Another thing that only the federal government can do is negotiate and enter into international agreements on climate change. At the federal level, the United States needs to commit to play an active part in crafting an effective global response to this problem.  We have not been playing a constructive role in this process – and that has to stop.

International negotiators, including the U.S., have agreed to a process aimed at producing a new global climate treaty by the end of 2009. This is an extremely ambitious goal, but one worth pursuing. Clearly, we need a global agreement as soon as possible that includes binding commitments from the world's largest economies.  And a global agreement that creates a worldwide market for emission reductions will help lower the global costs of achieving our emission reduction goals.    

Negotiating such an agreement is clearly a federal government responsibility … and it is a responsibility we will carry out more effectively if we commit as soon as possible to a national program of reducing emissions.  Right now, emerging economies and major sources of emissions like China and India are hiding behind U.S. inaction on this issue. U.S. leadership, in the form of mandatory emission limits at home coupled with a strong push for binding international commitments, would set the stage for effective global action – and, ultimately, real progress in reducing emissions around the world. 

Does this mean the states should step aside and cede the leadership role on the climate issue to Washington?  No. The states can and should keep exploring ways to leverage their unique authorities in areas from energy regulation to building codes, smart-growth planning and more.  States are doing important and valuable work in all of these areas, and that must continue at the same time that the federal government begins to fulfill its role in the partnership.

In closing, I want to remind you of the vision of Justice Louis Brandeis.  He saw the U.S. states as “laboratories of democracy” where policy innovations could take hold and perhaps provide models for other states, and for our national government as well.

And I honestly believe we would not be where we are today in the climate debate – on the verge of adopting a national cap-and-trade program – if many of the states had not acted first to adopt their own targets and to pursue cross-border emission trading regimes.  

The U.S. states are acting in the best traditions of federalism by advancing an array of solutions to climate change that address their specific concerns and that take advantage of their unique responsibilities in our federalist system of government.  Today, the challenge is to create a more balanced state and federal partnership – a partnership that promises to bring much-needed certainty to the question of how we as a nation are going to address the most critical environmental issue of our time.

Innovative Approaches to Climate Change: A State and Federal Workshop

Promoted in Energy Efficiency section: 
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The Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in collaboration with the Pew Center on the States, hosted a two-day workshop focused on state and federal action in response to climate change.

On February 25 and 26, 2008, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in collaboration with the Pew Center on the States, hosted a workshop focused on state and federal action in response to climate change. The event brought together legislative staff and officials from both the state and federal levels to share their experience developing climate policies, and to discuss the appropriate roles of each level of government in implementing future national policy. Participants explored how federal policy might be informed by, and interact with, existing state efforts.

Two new publications were released at the workshop as part of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change Climate Change 101 Series:

NEW: Climate Change 101: Adaptation (Updated - January 2009)
NEW: Climate Change 101: Cap-and-Trade (Updated - January 2009)


In addition, a new publication in the Pew Center's Coal Initiative Series was also released:

NEW: State Options for Low-Carbon Coal Policy

Based in part on the results of this workshop, the Pew Center released a new report in June 2008:

NEW: Toward a Constructive Dialogue on Federal and State Roles in U.S. Climate Change Policy

 

Innovative Approaches to Climate Change: A State and Federal Workshop
Eileen Claussen & Gov. Bill Richardson


Speaker and panelist presentations can be viewed by clicking on the presenter's name below.

Monday, February 25, 2008

Opening Address:

Insights from National Association of Clean Air Agencies Dialogue:

  • Doug Scott, Director, Illinois Environmental Protection Agency

Panel 1: Cap-and-Trade Design, Session 1

Moderator: Vicki Arroyo, Director of Policy Analysis, Pew Center on Global Climate Change

Panelists:

  • Janice Adair, Special Assistant to the Director, Washington State Department of Ecology
  • Lisa Jackson, Commissioner, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
  • David McIntosh, Legislative Assistant, Office of Senator Joseph Lieberman (I-CT)
  • Damien Meadows, Deputy Head of Unit, DG Environment, European Commission

Panel 2: Cap-and-Trade Design, Session 2

Watch this panel discussion on
E&ETV

Moderator: Janet Peace, Senior Economist, Pew Center on Global Climate Change

Panelists:

  • Michael Gibbs, Assistant Secretary for Climate Change, California Environmental Protection Agency
  • Christopher Sherry, Research Scientist, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
  • Damien Meadows, Deputy Head of Unit, DG Environment, European Commission
  • Edith Thompson, Legislative Assistant, Office of Congressman Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD)

Lunch Keynote Speaker:

Panel 3: Transportation - Low-Carbon Fuels and Vehicles

Moderator: Tom Peterson, President and CEO, Center for Climate Strategies

Panelists:

  • George Crombie, Secretary, Vermont Agency of Natural Resources
  • Chris Miller, Senior Policy Advisor, Office of Senator Harry Reid (D-NV)
  • David Crane, Special Advisor for Jobs and Economic Growth, Office of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
  • Roya Stanley, Director, Iowa Office of Energy Independence

Panel 4: Electricity

Moderator: Steve Brick, Program Manager, The Joyce Foundation

Panelists:

  • Leon Lowery, Majority Staff, Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee
  • Richard Opper, Director, Montana Department of Environmental Quality
  • Jeanne Fox, President, New Jersey Board of Public Utilities
  • Richard Cowart, Director, Regulatory Assistance Project

Dinner Keynote Speaker:

  • Erik Olson, Deputy Staff Director & General Counsel, Majority Staff, Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works

Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Breakfast Keynote Speaker:

  • Governor Tim Pawlenty, Minnesota

Panel 5: Smart Growth and Vehicle Miles Traveled

Moderator: Doug Foy, Policy Advisor, Pew Center on the States

Panelists:

Keynote Speaker:

  • Senator John F. Kerry, Massachusetts

Panel 6: Adaptation

Moderator: Joel Smith, Vice President, Stratus Consulting Inc.

Panelists:

  • Larry Hartig, Commissioner, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
  • Stephen Adams, Staff Director, Governor's Action Team on Energy and Climate Change, Florida
  • Robert Twilley, Professor, Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State University
  • David Van't Hof, Sustainability Advisor, Office of Oregon Governor Ted Kulongoski

Panel 7: Respective State and Federal Roles in Climate Policy

Moderator: Judi Greenwald, Director of Innovative Solutions, Pew Center on Global Climate Change

Panelists:

  • Sarah Cottrell, Energy and Environmental Policy Advisor, Office of New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson
  • George Givens, Principal Legislative Analyst/Attorney, North Carolina General Assembly
  • Franz Litz, Senior Fellow, World Resources Institute
  • Brad Moore, Commissioner, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

About U.S. States & Regions

States and regions across the country are adopting climate and clean energy policies. These actions include the development of regional greenhouse gas reduction markets, the creation of state and local climate action and adaptation plans, and increasing renewable energy generation. In addition to addressing climate change, states and regions pursue these policies to reduce their vulnerability to energy price spikes, promote state economic development, and improve local air quality. State and regional climate policy will provide models for future national efforts, achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and prepare for the impacts of climate change.

The State Solutions program at the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions conducts research and disseminates information about state actions in an effort to bring effective state climate and clean energy solutions into the federal policy-making arena and facilitate cross-fertilization between state and federal policy makers. The program provides information to states on climate impacts and policy opportunities, fosters peer-to-peer learning among state officials, and advises on the development of state and regional initiatives by providing expert advice and detailed analysis. The State Solutions group has been intimately involved in the development and implementation of every state and regional initiative that deals with cap and trade design, and many other significant state and regional policies. These efforts have included serving as advisors on policy design for the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeastern U.S.; deep engagement with major initiatives in California and other Western states; and efforts in Florida, North Carolina, and several Midwestern states. Through its engagement with these state efforts, the Solutions program assists and draws lessons from their design questions and decisions.

Coal Initiative Series: State Policy Options for Low-Carbon Coal Policy

 

State Policy Options

Coal Initiative Series White Paper:

State Options for Low-Carbon Coal Policy

Dowload the full white paper (pdf)

Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
February 2008

By:
Richard Cowart and Shanna Vale, Regulatory Assistance Project
Joshua Bushinsky and Pat Hogan, Pew Center on Global Climate Change

State Options for Low-Carbon Coal Policy is the third in a series of Pew Center papers that explore strategies for addressing CO2 emissions from using coal to provide electricity.

This paper provides an overview of the policy options available to states to encourage the deployment of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for coal-fueled power plants, including those policy tools available to state public utility commissions.

Joshua Bushinsky
Pat Hogan
Richard Cowart
Shanna Vale
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A Look at Emissions Targets

United States:

State & Regional
Proposed Federal Legislation
Bush Administration

International

Business

United States - State & Regional

Entity

Target

Notes and Source

Arizona: State-wide2000 levels by 2020
50% below 2000 by 2040
Executive Order 2006-13
California: State-wide

2000 levels by 2010
1990 levels by 2020
80% below 1990 by 2050

Executive Order S-3-05
California: Major industries state-wide1990 levels by 2020AB 32
Connecticut: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-85% below 2001 levels in the long term
Connecticut Climate Change Action Plan
Florida: State-wide

2000 levels by 2017
1990 levels by 2025
80% below 1990 levels by 2050

EO 07-127
Florida: Electric Utilities

2000 levels by 2017
1990 levels by 2025
80% below 1990 levels by 2050

EO 07-127
Hawaii: State-wide1990 levels by 2020Act 234
Illinois: State-wide1990 levels by 2020
60% below 1990 levels by 2050
Press Release
Maine: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-80% below 2003 long-term
LD 845 (HP 622)
Massachusetts: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-85% below 1990 long-term
Massachusetts Climate Protection Plan of 2004
Massachusetts: Electric Utilities10% below 1997-1999CO2 target only.
310 CMR 7.29
Minnesota: State-wide

15% below 2005 levels by 2015
30% below 2005 levels by 2025
80% below 2005 levels by 2050

Next Generation Energy Act
New Hampshire: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-85% below 2001 long-term
The Climate Change Challenge
New Hampshire: Electric Utilities1990 levels by 2006CO2 target only.
HB 284
New Jersey: State-wide1990 levels by 2020
80% below 2006 levels by 2050
Press release and executive order
New Mexico: State-wide2000 levels by 2012
10% below 2000 by 2020
75% below 2000 by 2050
Executive Order 05-033
New York: State-wide5% below 1990 by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
State Energy Plan of 2002
Oregon: State-wideStabilize by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75% below 1990 by 2050
Oregon Strategy for Greenhouse Gas Reductions
Rhode Island: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
Rhode Island Greenhouse Gas Action Plan
Vermont: State-wide1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-85% below 2001 long-term
 
Washington: State-wide1990 levels by 2020
25% below 1990 levels by 2035
50% below 1990 levels by 2050
Executive Order 07-02

Western Climate Initiative

15% below 2005 levels by 2020Western Climate Initiative Statement of Regional Goal
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: CO2 emissions from power plants

Cap emissions at current levels in 2009
Reduce emissions 10% by 2019.

our summary
New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers:
Regional economy-wide
1990 levels by 2010
10% below 1990 by 2020
75-85% below 2001 long-term
Climate Change Action Plan of 2001

United States - Proposed Federal Legislation

Entity

Target

Notes & Source

Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act
S.3036

4% below 2005 level by 2012
19% below 2005 level by 2020
71% below 2005 level by 2050 
As introduced 5/2008

Low Carbon Economy Act (Bingaman-Specter)

S.1766

2012 level in 2012
2006 level in 2020
1990 level in 2030
President may set long-term target greater than or equal to 60% below 2006 level by 2050 contingent upon international effort

As introduced 7/2007
Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act (McCain-Lieberman)

S.280
2004 level in 2012
1990 level in 2020
20% below 1990 level in 2030
60% below 1990 level in 2050
As introduced 1/2007
Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act (Sanders-Boxer)

S.309
2010 level in 2010
2%/year reduction from 2010-2020
1990 level in 2020
27% below 1990 level in 2030
53% below 1990 level in 2040
80% below 1990 level in 2050
As introduced 1/2007
Climate Stewardship Act (Olver-Gilchrest)

H.R.620
2006 level in 2012
1990 level in 2020
22% below 1990 level in 2030
70% below 1990 level in 2050
As introduced 1/2007
Global Warming Reduction Act (Kerry-Snowe)

S.485
2010 level in 2010
1990 level in 2020
2.5%/year reduction from 2020-2029
3.5%/year reduction from 2030-2050
62% below 1990 level in 2050
As introduced 2/2007
Safe Climate Act of 2007 (Waxman)

H.R.1590
2009 level in 2010
2%/year reduction from 2011-2020
1990 levels in 2020
5%/year reduction from 2020-2029
5%/year reduction from 2030-2050
80% below 1990 levels in 2050
As introduced 3/2007
Electric Utility Cap and Trade Act (Feinstein-Carper)

S.317
2006 level in 2011
2001 level in 2015
1%/year reduction from 2016-2019
1.5%/year reduction starting in 2020 (may be adjusted by Administrator)

Electricity sector; all GHGs

As introduced 1/2007

Clean Air Climate Change Act of 2007 (Alexander-Lieberman)

S.1168
2300 MMT CO2 (approx. 2006 level) from 2011-2014
2100 MMT CO2 (approx. 1997 level) from 2015-2019
1800 MMT CO2 (approx.1990 level) from 2020-2024
1500 MMT CO2 (approx.17% below 1990 level) from 2025 forward
Electricity sector; 4 pollutants

As introduced 4/2007
Clean Air Planning Act of 2007 (Carper)

S. 1177
2006 CO2 level in 2012-2014
2001 CO2 level in 2015
1%/year reduction CO2 level from 2016-2019
1.5%/year reduction CO2 levels starting in 2020
1.5%/year reduction CO2 levels starting in 2020 (may be adjusted by Administrator to 3% in 2030 & beyond)
25% below 1990 CO2 level in 2050
Electricity sector; 4 pollutants

As introduced 4/2007
Clean Power Act of 2007 (Sanders)

S. 1201

Goal is to facilitate the worldwide stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of global warming pollutants at 450ppm CO2e by 2050*

2300 MMT CO2 (approx. 2006 level) by 2011
2100 MMT CO2 (approx. 1997 level) by 2015*
1803 MMT CO2 (approx. 1990 level) by 2020*
1500 MMT CO2 (approx. 17% below 1990 level) by 2025*

* If Congress has not passed, and the President has not signed, legislation to address 85% of GHG emissions economy-wide by 2012, further 3%/year reduction in CO2 limits until global GHG emissions reach 450ppm.

Electricity sector; 4 pollutants

As introduced 4/2007

United States - Bush Administration

Entity

Target

Notes & Source

Voluntary "greenhouse gas intensity" target for the U.S.18% below 2002 intensity levels by 2012Announced 2/14/2002
Our Analysis

International

Entity

Target

Notes & Source

Australia

8% above 1990 by 2008-2012

Kyoto Target

Canada

6% below 1990 by 2008-2012

Kyoto Target

European Community

8% below 1990 by 2008-2012

Kyoto Target

Japan

6% below 1990 by 2008-2012

Kyoto Target

New Zealand

1990 levels by 2008-2012

Kyoto Target

United Kingdom

20% below 1990 by 2020
60% below 1990 by 2050

CO2 target only.
Energy White Paper of 2003

European Community
Kyoto Bubble Targets
[i]

Target for 2008-2012

European Community Council Decision of April 2002

Austria

13% below 1990

 

Belgium

7.5% below 1990

 

Denmark

21% below 1990

 

Finland

1990 levels

 

France

1990 levels

 

Germany

21% below 1990

 

Greece

25% above 1990

 

Ireland

13% above 1990

 

Italy

6.5% below 1990

 

Luxembourg

28% below 1990

 

Netherlands

6% below 1990

 

Portugal

27% above 1990

 

Spain

15% above 1990

 

Sweden

4% above 1990

 

United Kingdom

12.5% below 1990

 

[i] The EU-15 nations have joined a "bubble" which allows the joint fulfillment of emissions commitments and preserves the collective emissions reduction goal of 8% below 1990 levels by 2008/2012

Business

Our Business Environmental Leadership Council (BELC) is a group of leading companies worldwide that are responding to the challenges posed by climate change. This section provides a sampling of GHG reduction targets set by these companies. Through their efforts, they are demonstrating that GHG emissions can be reduced significantly and cost-effectively.

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EPA Denies California Vehicle Emissions Standards Waiver Request

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On December 19, 2007, United States Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Stephen Johnson announced his agency had denied California’s request for a waiver that would allow the state to implement its greenhouse gas emissions standards for motor vehicles. In explaining his decision, Johnson argued that recently enacted federal energy legislation establishes national vehicle efficiency standards of 35 miles per gallon by 2020, and that this unified standard is preferable to a state-by-state approach. Johnson also said that in making its request, California failed to demonstrate the waiver was required to meet “compelling and extraordinary conditions” within the state, given the global nature of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Governor Schwarzenegger of California responded to the EPA’s decision by saying California’s standards are still necessary because the new federal requirements do not go far enough in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. On January 2, 2008, California filed a lawsuit challenging the EPA's decision.

California’s proposed standards would be gradually phased in between model-years 2009 and 2016, and by model-year 2016, would require reductions of tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions from new motor vehicles of approximately 30 percent. California and 16 other states are poised to adopt the standards. However, before these states can act, the federal EPA must grant California’s waiver request.

Johnson’s decision comes in the wake of two court rulings that supported implementation of the standards. On December 12, 2007, U.S. District Court Judge Anthony Ishii ruled against a group of automobile manufacturers challenging California’s authority to set and implement greenhouse gas emissions standards for motor vehicles. A similar ruling was issued earlier in the year in Vermont against automobile industry plaintiffs challenging that state’s authority to adopt the California standards.

EPA Press Release
California Governor's Office Press Release
Map of States with Greenhouse Gas Vehicle Standards

The Role of Coal Gasification in Ohio’s Economy and Energy Future

Creating Power, Technology and Products

Creating Power, Technology, and Products: The Role of Coal Gasification in Ohio’s Economy and Energy Future

Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change by Kleinhenz & Associates of Cleveland, Ohio
December 2007

Download a pdf of this report.

Read the companion study "The Role of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in Ohio's Economy and Energy Future"

Executive Summary

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change commissioned Kleinhenz and Associates to examine how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio’s economy and energy future – particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio’s economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster.

The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits.

The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders.

Report on how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio’s economy.
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Federal Court Upholds California's Vehicle Emissions Standards

Promoted in Energy Efficiency section: 
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On December 12, 2007, U.S. District Court Judge Anthony Ishii ruled against a group of automobile manufacturers challenging California’s authority to set and implement greenhouse gas emissions standards for motor vehicles. The auto industry had argued that the state's proposed regulations amount to setting fuel efficiency requirements for new vehicles, and that such efficiency standards can be set only by the federal government - specifically, the Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. A similar ruling was issued earlier this year in Vermont against automobile industry plaintiffs challenging that state’s authority to adopt California’s vehicle emissions standards. California’s proposed standards would be gradually phased in between model-years 2009 and 2016, and by model-year 2016, would require reductions of tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions from new motor vehicles of approximately 30 percent. California and 16 other states are poised to adopt the standards, assuming the federal EPA grants California’s waiver request and barring any additional legal challenges.

Press Release
Map of States with Greenhouse Gas Vehicle Standards

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