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|United Nations area at COP 21 in Paris. (Photo Courtesy of UNFCCC via Flickr).|
The Paris climate summit is a tale of lessons learned – lessons both in how to manage an unruly negotiating process that can easily veer out of control, and in how to craft a multilateral approach that gets everyone to do more.
The Paris agreement is a pragmatic deal that delivers what’s needed – tools to hold countries accountable and build ambition over time. By giving countries greater confidence that all are doing their fair share, it will make it easier for each to do more.
I’ve engaged closely with the U.N. climate talks since their launch in 1992, and here are some of my takeaways on the ingredients for Paris’ success:
Expectations are a powerful force
Even before the summit started or a single word was agreed, more than 180 countries had offered concrete plans for how they intend to address climate change. This was not because they were obliged to, but simply because there was an expectation set two years ago in Warsaw that they would.
This unprecedented, and largely unanticipated, show of political will created powerful momentum heading into Paris.
The agreement that emerged sets some binding commitments (see below), but much of its force will hinge on the further expectations that it sets: that, going forward, countries will put forward their best efforts, and will strengthen them over time. It creates a succession of political moments, like the one we just experienced, when all can judge whether those expectations are met.
Statement from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES)
December 12, 2015
Contact: Laura Rehrmann, firstname.lastname@example.org, (cell) 703-774-5480
On the achievement of the Paris Agreement:
C2ES President Bob Perciasepe:
"We came into Paris with unprecedented momentum for climate action, and we’re leaving with a landmark agreement that’s certain to help strengthen that momentum going forward.
Countries have been trying for years to craft an effective climate agreement. What made a difference this time was a groundswell from the front lines – mayors, governors, and CEOs who showed they’re taking the lead and pressed national governments to do more.
Two forces drove Paris: the real and rising risks posed by climate change, and the opportunities presented by a clean-energy transition. These forces will keep driving stronger action and investment, and the Paris agreement will help ensure that all are doing their fair share.
U.S. leadership was essential to delivering the deal. Through strong action at home, the United States showed it was prepared to do its part. Through dogged diplomacy abroad, it helped persuade China and others to do theirs, too. We must count on continued U.S. leadership in the months and years ahead to bring the Paris agreement into force, fulfill our commitments, and keep strengthening our national climate effort.
At C2ES, we believe this agreement sets the stage for global economies to grow with innovation while the world begins the hard work of mitigating climate risk."
C2ES Executive Vice President Elliot Diringer:
"The Paris agreement is a pragmatic deal that delivers what’s needed – tools to hold countries accountable and build ambition over time. We’ll only know for sure years from now, but this new global approach could prove transformative.
By giving countries the flexibility to define their own contributions, the agreement gets all the major players on board with concrete commitments to control emissions. But it does more than stitch countries’ goals together. It requires them to report regularly on their actions and their emissions, so we know if they’re sticking to their promises. And it brings them back to the table every five years to keep doing more.
This cycle of commitment – tell us what you’ll do, show us you’re doing it, tell us what you’ll do next – will strengthen confidence that all countries are doing their fair share. And that will make it easier for each to do more.
No one summit or agreement will solve climate change. But the Paris agreement converts the unprecedented political will of the moment into a long-term framework that can keep strengthening political will going forward. It undercuts old excuses for inaction and sets in motion a new dynamic among countries that promises growing effort by all."
About C2ES: The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan organization promoting strong policy and action to address our energy and climate challenges. Learn more at www.c2es.org.
As negotiators in Paris put the finishing touches on a new global climate accord, it’s worth reflecting on how much the summit has already accomplished.
One event or agreement by itself can’t completely reverse the climate problem. But like other important moments in history, such as the drive to land on the moon in 1969, Paris can inspire innovations across society.The U.S. space program would not have been possible without technologies that still benefit us today like scratch-resistant lenses, computer microchips, smoke detectors and solar panels. Nearly half a century later, many businesses, cities, states and nations are taking new, bold steps to reduce emissions and move toward a clean energy economy.
Whether it’s paving the way for rapid, wide-scale development of renewables, investing in energy efficiency technology and lower carbon electricity, or building resilience to climate impacts, a huge wave of innovation has already been unleashed.
Consider just some of the announcements made before and during the Paris talks:
- Leaders of 20 countries announced they’ll seek to double investment in clean energy research and development over five years. Backing up this effort, called Mission Innovation, are more than two dozen investors led by Microsoft founder Bill Gates who have pledged to fund early-stage clean energy technology coming out of Mission Innovation.
- India and France announced an international solar alliance to dramatically increase the reach of solar energy to more than 100 countries in the tropics.
Two days into the final week of climate talks here in Paris, the French hosts have artfully managed to avert any of the usual procedural showdowns, and the contours of a deal are finally beginning to emerge.
With the formal handoff of a draft text to the French presidency over the weekend, the most immediate challenge was structuring a process for this week’s Ministerial-level talks that is “transparent” and “inclusive” but also allows for the private give-and-take among key players that’s necessary to get to a deal.
The process devised by the French has distributed the issues across a number of working groups that are “open-ended” (open to all parties, and thus inclusive), which report daily to a Comité de Paris, whose proceedings are open to all, including observers (and thus transparent).
Simultaneously, the Ministers appointed to facilitate the working groups are engaging in furious rounds of private bilateral discussions to triangulate among parties’ positions and move them toward consensus.
Although a handful of parties are pushing to move into a full-group, line-by-line negotiation (which would more likely slow than accelerate the process), this diplomatic balancing appears so far to have earned the trust of most parties and avoided the kind of procedural blowups that have stymied previous COPs.
And, judging from the initial reports from the working group facilitators on Monday night, progress is being made.
Between those reports, and conversations in the hallways, it appears that the “landing zones” we’ve seen emerging in recent months are now becoming clearer to the Ministers too.
On the whole, Paris will produce a hybrid accord coupling countries’ "nationally determined” contributions (NDCs) with a set of rules and norms promoting accountability and ambition. All but 10 parties have submitted NDCs, demonstrating how the bottom-up flexibility of “nationally determined” achieves broad participation. Now we need the top-down pieces to hold countries accountable and push them to do more.
It’s never safe to predict a COP outcome, but here’s how we see key issues shaping up:
The leaders have jetted off, and the focus here at COP 21 has shifted from the visionary to the nitty-gritty. Now begins the tough grind of narrowing differences, issue by issue, and finding words everyone can agree on.
The record number of heads of state who converged on Paris injected a true sense of gravity -- both by their mere presence and their words, whether describing the futures they fear, the alternatives they envision, or the urgency they feel.
They also spoke, at least in broad terms, to the stubborn issues their negotiators must now overcome, such as help for poor countries facing climate losses, and how countries will be held accountable for their promises.
On the first full day of formal negotiations, any momentum the leaders provided had yet to translate into breakthroughs. Delegates reported constructive closed-door conversations on some issues, but there were few visible signs of progress on the text of an agreement.
At this stage, the negotiations are still taking place within the Ad Hoc Group on the Durban Platform (ADP), which was launched four years ago to produce a draft agreement. An ADP contact group is taking up some issues in the open, but most of the work is taking place in smaller, closed “spinoff groups” and in bilateral discussions.
According to the conference schedule, the ADP is supposed to wrap up its work by Saturday. It will then hand off a text, whatever shape it’s in, to the Conference of the Parties, and to the French presidency, which will orchestrate the final week.
The French face a real challenge under the best of circumstances: crafting a diplomatic process that allows the private give-and-take among a core of key players needed to strike a deal, while at the same time being transparent enough to maintain the confidence of all 196 parties.
That job will be immensely harder if parties don’t start showing flexibility and make real progress over the next four days. Certainly many tough issues remain, but there’s enough convergence on the broad contours of a deal that putting it on paper shouldn’t be impossible.
If it comes to it, the French can no doubt count on help from high places. The leaders may be gone, but they’ll be watching. And they’re just a phone call away.
(All times are Paris time)
The American Business Act on Climate Pledge
U.S. Center (Hall 2 Blue Zone—Credential Required)
Friday, December 4, 3:45 pm
Join leaders from the White House, C2ES and American corporations, who will discuss how U.S. businesses are leading the way in climate action and investment. Senior leaders of Fortune 500 businesses will discuss not only their own efforts on climate mitigation and resilience, but also how a strong agreement in Paris can help them plan future investments.
More than 80 companies, representing more than $3 trillion in annual revenue, have joined the White House’s American Business Act on Climate Pledge. Several of these companies are also part of the C2ES Business Environmental Leadership Council. American businesses are showing they understand there are considerable economic opportunities in getting ahead of the climate curve, but also considerable risks and costs to inaction.
Robert Diamond – Special Assistant to the President and Director of Private Sector Engagement, White House
Alex Liftman – Global Environmental Executive, Bank of America
Kevin McKnight – Chief Sustainability Officer, Alcoa
Thad Miller – Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer, Calpine
Bob Perciasepe – President, C2ES
Leah Seligmann – Chief Sustainability Officer, NRG
John Woolard – VP of Energy, Google
Charting a Low-Carbon Course for the U.S. Power Sector
(co-sponsored by Edison Electric Institute)
UNFCCC Side Event (Room 01) (Observer Room 1, Hall 4, Blue Zone-Credential Required)
Saturday, December 5, 6:30 pm
Business and government leaders discuss efforts to reduce carbon emissions from the U.S. power sector, and challenges and opportunities in implementing the new federal Clean Power Plan, a centerpiece of the U.S. strategy to meet its nationally determined contribution to the Paris agreement.
Tony Earley – Chief Executive Officer, PG&E
Gina McCarthy – Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Pat Vincent-Collawn – Chief Executive Officer, PNM Resources
Brian Wolff – Executive Vice President, Public Policy and External Affairs, EEI
Implementing the U.S. Clean Power Plan: State and Business Perspectives
(co-sponsored by The Climate Registry)
E.U. Pavilion (Brussels Room) (Hall 2, Blue Zone-Credential Required)
Thursday, December 10, 4:30 pm
Senior representatives of state governments and power companies in the United States will discuss the challenges and opportunities they face in implementing the Clean Power Plan. The new federal rule, which aims to reduce U.S. power sector emissions 32 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, is a centerpiece of the strategy for achieving the U.S. contribution to the Paris agreement.
Helen Burt - Senior Vice President, External Affairs and Public Policy, PG&E
Bob Martineau – Commissioner, Tennessee Department of Environment & Conservation
Ann McCabe – Commissioner, Illinois Commerce Commission
Yvonne McIntyre – Vice President, Federal Legislative Affairs, Calpine
Mary D. Nichols -- Chair, California Air Resources Board
Bob Perciasepe – President, C2ES
David Rosenheim – Executive Director, The Climate Registry
Essential Elements of a Paris Climate Agreement
The U.N. Climate Change Conference in Paris presents a critical opportunity for parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to strengthen the global response to climate change. In this brief, the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions outlines essential elements of a successful outcome in Paris. This vision of the Paris outcome draws on C2ES’s Toward 2015 dialogue, a series of in-depth consultations among senior climate negotiators from two dozen countries.
Read our summary of the Outcomes of the U.N. Climate Change Conference in Paris
Global climate talks underway in Paris have been built on a foundation of more than just national government commitments. “Sub-national actors,” such as cities, states, and companies, have been making their own climate commitments ahead of Paris, and that trend continues this week.
Just today, in a full-page Wall Street Journal ad coordinated in part by C2ES, more than 100 companies announced their support for a fair and strong global climate agreement and pledged to ensure a transition to a low-carbon, energy-efficient U.S. economy. These companies join a growing chorus of corporate voices for climate action. For example:
- More than 150 companies, from Alcoa to Xerox, have signed the American Business Act on Climate Pledge and committed to reducing their environmental impact through steps such as cutting emissions in half, reducing water usage, and running on 100 percent renewable energy.
- Bill Gates and other leading business entrepreneurs launched a multibillion-dollar public-private partnership to fund research and development of innovative clean energy technologies.
- Last week, 78 global CEOs signed an open letter calling committing to action and calling on governments to implement carbon pricing.
- This fall, 14 energy, tech and manufacturing companies with more than $1 trillion in revenues signed a statement organized by C2ES supporting a balanced and durable international agreement.
Why do more and more businesses care about climate change?
We’ll only know years from now, but the climate summit opening today in Paris could prove to be transformative. It could set in motion a new dynamic among nations that, over time, will progressively strengthen the global climate effort.
Any agreement coming out of Paris will, by some measures, fall short. Countries’ nationally determined contributions move us closer, but not close enough, to the goal of keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. And for those who believe legally binding emission targets are essential, the outcome will likely be disappointing.
But relying solely on those yardsticks would undervalue the potential of the deal taking shape.
For the first time in more than two decades of climate diplomacy, we are on the verge of a binding agreement that commits all countries to contribute their best efforts, holds them accountable for their promises, and works to build ambition over time.
Bob Perciasepe's statement on world leaders gathering in Paris for the start of international climate talks
Statement of Bob Perciasepe
President, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions
November 30, 2015
On world leaders gathering in Paris for the start of international climate talks:
The presence of so many world leaders in Paris today is the clearest sign yet that we’re on the verge of an unprecedented breakthrough in the global climate effort.
As the leaders themselves have made clear, many tough issues remain. But their overwhelming message is that a global challenge like climate change demands a global response, and they’re committed to delivering it.
Over the past year we’ve seen greater will than ever, from developed and developing countries alike, and growing convergence on the broad contours of a deal. Negotiators are now on notice from their leaders that in two weeks’ time they must deliver a final accord.
The deal taking shape can – for the first time – establish a balanced and durable framework that gets all of the major economies on board, provides strong accountability, and works to strengthen ambition over time. By building confidence that all countries are doing their fair share, the Paris agreement can in the years ahead enable each to do more.
Contact: Laura Rehrmann, email@example.com or 703-516-0621
About C2ES: The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan organization promoting strong policy and action to address our climate and energy challenges. Learn more at www.c2es.org.