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The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions seeks to inform the design and implementation of federal policies that will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Drawing from its extensive peer-reviewed published works, in-house policy analyses, and tracking of current legislative proposals, the Center provides research, analysis, and recommendations to policymakers in Congress and the Executive Branch. Read More
 

Climate Solutions: The Role of Nuclear Power

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9:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m, National Press ClubNuclear power supplies more than 60 percent of zero-carbon electricity in the United States. The unexpected retirement of five nuclear reactors is prompting concerns that additional closures could make it tougher to meet U.S. climate goals. C2ES releases a new brief examining this emerging dilemma and hosts a discussion with government, industry, and policy leaders.Eileen Claussen, President, Center for Climate and Energy SolutionsCarol Browner, Distinguished Senior Fellow, Center for American ProgressPeter Lyons, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Energy for Nuclear EnergyDr. Susan Tierney, Managing Principal, Analysis GroupClick here to RSVP

Nuclear power supplies more than 60 percent of zero-carbon electricity in the United States. The unexpected retirement of five nuclear reactors is prompting concerns that additional closures could make it tougher to meet U.S. climate goals.

C2ES releases a new brief examining this emerging dilemma and hosts a discussion with government, industry, and policy leaders.

Monday, April 28
9:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m
National Press Club
529 14th St. NW, 13th Floor
Washington, DC 20045

Speakers at the event will include:

EILEEN CLAUSSEN
President, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

CAROL BROWNER
Distinguished Senior Fellow, Center for American Progress

PETER LYONS
U.S. Assistant Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Energy

DR. SUSAN TIERNEY
Managing Principal, Analysis Group

Click here to RSVP

 

EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Power Plants

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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new proposal to limit greenhouse gas emissions from new power plants on September 20, 2013. The proposed “Carbon Pollution Standard for New Power Plants” replaces an earlier proposal released by EPA in March 2012. It would establish New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) under the Clean Air Act to limit emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. Under a June 2013 directive from President Obama, EPA is also developing a proposal to limit carbon emissions from existing power plants.

Why is regulation of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants important?

Electric power generation is responsible for about 40 percent of U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas.

Figure 1: 2012 U.S. CO2 Emissions

Source: Energy Information Administration

Since the federal government adopted new vehicle standards in August 2012 to reduce transportation-related emissions, the power sector represents the next opportunity to achieve significant carbon reductions.

Coal and natural gas are used to fuel over two-thirds of U.S. electricity generation, and are responsible for nearly 100 percent of power sector CO2 emissions. As shown in Figure 2, the United States currently obtains 30 percent of its electricity from natural gas. Since 2000, however, natural gas has accounted for over 90 percent of new fossil generation capacity, and most new generation planned for the next few years will be fueled by natural gas.

There is one new coal plant planned for 2014: Southern Company’s Kemper Plant, which will employ carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is one new coal plant planned for 2015, which is a combined heat and power (CHP) plant that would likely not be subject to the proposed EPA standard.

Figure 2: 2012 U.S. Electricity Generation

Source: Energy Information Administration

Figure 3: Proposed U.S. Fossil Generation Capacity

Source: Energy Information Administration

How would the standards work?

New Source Performance Standards set limits on emissions based on EPA’s assessment of available technologies. As with many other Clean Air Act programs, EPA establishes a standard for a given category of facility, which state environmental agencies then translate into requirements for individual facilities.

EPA’s proposed "Carbon Pollution Standard for New Power Plants" was developed under Section 111(b) of the Clean Air Act. Section 111(b) calls for a standard that "reflects the degree of emissions limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emissions reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated." The emissions limit must take the form of a standard – in the case of power plants, maximum allowable CO2 emissions per unit of electricity – and may not prescribe a particular technology.

The Act ostensibly requires EPA to review the technological options available and, if appropriate, establish a new standard every eight years. In practice, standards have typically remained unexamined and unchanged for much longer than eight years, often because of resource constraints at EPA.

What does the standard require?

The proposed rules would set separate standards for power plants fueled by natural gas and coal. New, large plants (roughly 100 MW or larger) fueled by natural gas could emit no more than 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity produced, which is achievable with the latest combined cycle technology. Smaller natural gas plants, which tend to be less efficient and operate less frequently, would have to achieve a less stringent rate of 1,100 lbs CO2/MWh. Coal plants would have two compliance options, either of which would require the use of CCS technology. Under one option, coal plants would have to begin using CCS soon after startup to achieve a 12-month average emission rate of 1,100 lbs CO2/MWh. Alternatively, coal plants could begin using CCS within seven years of startup to achieve a seven-year average emission rate of between 1,000 and 1,050 lbs CO2/MWh, with EPA inviting comment as to the final standard within that range. CCS is not yet in use at any commercial-scale power plants, but is currently being built into large coal plants in Kemper County, Mississippi and Saskatchewan, Canada. CCS technology is also in place in several industrial facilities, some of which generate as much carbon dioxide as a commercial-scale power plant.

A handful of states already have greenhouse gas limits in place for electricity generation. California, Oregon, and Washington all have limits of 1,100 lbs CO2/MWh. New York has a stricter limit of 925 lbs CO2/MWh. If finalized, EPA’s proposed standard would supersede the standards in California, Oregon, and Washington, while New York would be able to maintain its stricter standard since the Clean Air Act allows states to go beyond the federal standard.

What are the costs associated with the proposed standards?

EPA expects this standard to have negligible costs through 2022 (the intended time horizon of the standard), since very few new coal plants are planned, even without the proposed standard, and since developers of new natural gas plants should see minimal, if any, additional costs.

If a developer chooses to build a new coal plant, the proposed standards could add considerable costs to the project because it will have to employ CCS technology. Since CCS technology is so new, especially for power plant applications, its costs are still high. However, as with any new technology, costs will come down as developers gain experience and new innovations are made.

What effect is this proposal expected to have on carbon dioxide emissions?

In the near future, the proposed standard is expected to have very little impact on emissions because so few new coal plants would likely be built even without the standard. Nearly all new fossil-fuel power plants in the planning stages will be fueled by natural gas, using generation technology that should be able to comply with EPA’s proposed standards without any alterations. Power plant developers already have strong incentive to use the most efficient technology to maximize the amount of electricity that can be generated from each unit of fuel.

If a developer chooses to build a new coal plant, the requirement that the plant install CCS technology within seven years will drastically reduce its emissions. Increased deployment of CCS technology at power plants will very likely drive CCS costs down and make it a more viable option at other new coal plants. Through experience and innovation, CCS costs may come down enough to be viable on new natural gas power plants, or as retrofits on existing coal plants, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector even further.

How is this different from the standard EPA proposed in 2012?

EPA’s first proposal for limiting carbon emissions from new power plants was released on March 27, 2012. Under that proposal, all new power plants would have been subject to a uniform standard: 1,000 lbs CO2/MWh. Under this standard, new coal plants would have been possible only if CCS technology were employed to capture an average of about 50 percent of CO2 emissions over 30 years. However, EPA viewed combined cycle natural gas plants as the primary compliance pathway because it did not project a demand for any new coal plants in the near future regardless.

Many of the public comments received by EPA on its initial proposal objected to the unprecedented use of a single standard for both coal- and natural gas-fired plants. EPA has responded in its new proposal by including a separate standard for each fuel. However, since CCS would still be required for new coal plants, the net effect of the new proposal would be similar.

What can power plants do to reduce emissions?

New natural gas plants can reach the proposed CO2 standard by employing the most efficient generation technology. In older steam turbine plants, natural gas is combusted to heat water, which creates steam to turn a turbine and generate electricity. These plants have thermal efficiencies of 30-35 percent, meaning about one third of the chemical energy stored in natural gas is converted to electricity. In contrast, new combined cycle combustion turbines more effectively take advantage of the energy in natural gas to operate with a thermal efficiency above 60 percent.

New coal plants, on the other hand, cannot achieve the proposed standard through efficiency alone. The most efficient type of coal plants, using ultra-supercritical boilers or integrated gasification combined cycle technology, can currently achieve a CO2 emission rate of around 1,700 lbs/MWh. Thus new coal plants can only meet the standard through the use of CCS, which traps CO2 exiting the plant, transports it, and injects it into an underground geological formation for permanent storage. New plants can either begin using CCS soon after startup, or begin using it later to reach a seven-year average emission rate between 1,000 and 1,050 lbs CO2/MWh, which would require the capture of about 40 percent of CO2 emissions. EPA is inviting comment on the appropriate point within this range to set the standard.

If new coal plants must use carbon capture and storage technology, what will that mean for the future of coal? How far along is CCS technology?

Even if EPA were not moving forward with this standard, very few new coal plants would likely be built, in large part because of the availability of affordable natural gas. The Energy Information Administration lists only four potential coal plants between now and 2018, compared with more than 200 expected natural gas plants.

Today, there are nine active commercial-scale CCS projects at industrial plants around the world (six of them in the United States). The world’s first two commercial-scale CCS power plants – Southern Company’s coal-fueled Kemper County energy facility in Mississippi and the Boundary Dam Power Station in Saskatchewan, Canada – are under construction and expected to be completed in 2014.

Approximately 50 additional commercial-scale CCS projects in the power and industrial sectors are in various stages of development around the world. Learn more about the status of CCS technology here.

How would existing state policies, such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, be affected?

The proposed standard for new power plants would likely be layered on top of existing state programs. For example, a new plant operating in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) territory would have to achieve the proposed federal standard, and would also have to submit tradable emission allowances annually to comply with the requirements of RGGI.

How does this proposal relate to EPA’s work on a standard for existing power plants?

Section 111 of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from new and existing power plants under two separate but related provisions. Section 111(b) requires EPA to set emission performance standards for new, modified, and reconstructed power plants, while Section 111(d) requires EPA to set guidelines for existing power plants. The guidelines for existing power plants cannot be finalized until a final standard is in place for new power plants.

Section 111(b) vests relatively more authority in EPA, and is more straightforward. EPA is required to find emission-reduction technology that has been adequately demonstrated and use this to set federal, numerical performance standards that new power plants must meet. These Section 111(b) standards are implemented by the states, as are most EPA air rules, but states do not have much flexibility to alter the standards set by EPA. On the other hand, under Section 111(d), states have greater flexibility in how they implement the EPA standard. For instance, Section 111(d) allows for the possibility of market-based mechanisms to reduce emissions system-wide, rather than focusing on individual power plants.

How long will it take EPA to finalize this standard?

President Obama’s June 2013 memo to EPA directed the agency to propose standard for new power plants by September 2013, but did not set a deadline for finalizing the standard. Federal agencies typically have a year to finalize proposed regulations.

EPA must finalize the standard for new power plants before it can finalize its guidelines for existing power plants. Since President Obama set a deadline of June 1, 2015, for the final standards for existing power plants, this may effectively serve as the deadline for a final standard for new power plants.

Under what authority is EPA regulating greenhouse gas emissions?

EPA is required by the Clean Air Act to develop and enforce regulations on greenhouse gases, much in the way it regulates other air pollutants. This authority was clarified in the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Massachusetts v. EPA (2007). The decision was a result of 12 states petitioning EPA to regulate greenhouse gases from new motor vehicles in 1999. The Supreme Court ruled that greenhouse gases meet the definition of air pollutants under the Clean Air Act and must be regulated if these gases could be reasonably anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. Responding to the Court’s ruling, EPA finalized an endangerment finding in December 2009. Based on overwhelming scientific evidence it found that six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, constitute a threat to public health and welfare. Thus, it is the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the existing Act and EPA’s assessment of the scientific evidence that form the basis for EPA’s regulatory actions.

Once any substance becomes a regulated pollutant under the Clean Air Act, certain other provisions of the Act automatically kick in. Greenhouse gases first became regulated under the Act with EPA’s rule setting new standards for light-duty vehicles. This, in turn, triggered the requirement that major new or modified stationary sources be subject to a handful of Clean Air Act provisions, including Section 111(b).

Has EPA regulated greenhouse gas emissions before?

Yes. In addition to its existing greenhouse gas standards for new light duty vehicles, EPA regulates greenhouse gas emissions from new, large stationary sources through a process called New Source Review (NSR). If a new emissions source, including a power plant, will emit above a certain threshold, it must acquire a permit to emit greenhouse gas. This permit will include a requirement that the source employ the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) to ensure it will take all feasible steps available to limit greenhouse gas emissions. BACT is set on a source-specific basis, and so far EPA has determined BACT for greenhouse gas emissions from power plants to be efficiency improvements. Once EPA’s proposed NSPS is finalized, new power plants will have to comply with both this NSPS and NSR, as well as other permitting requirements already in place.

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Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation

January 2011

By: David L. Greene and Steven E. Plotkin

Download this paper (pdf)

Press Release

E&E TV Interview

Project Director: Judi Greenwald

Project Manager: Nick Nigro

 

Executive Summary:

This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world’s transportation GHG emissions. Without shifts in existing policies, the U.S. transportation sector’s GHG emissions are expected to grow by about 10 percent by 2035, and will still account for a quarter of global transportation emissions at that time. If there is to be any hope that damages from climate change can be held to moderate levels, these trends must change.

This report shows that through a combination of policies and improved technologies, these trends can be changed. It is possible to cut GHG emissions from the transportation sector cost-effectively by up to 65 percent below 2010 levels by 2050 by improving vehicle efficiency, shifting to less carbon intensive fuels, changing travel behavior, and operating more efficiently. A major co-benefit of reducing transportation’s GHG emissions is the resulting reductions in oil use and improvements in energy security.

It develops three scenarios that diverge from “business as usual,” based on the assumption that the United States is willing to change the incentives and regulations that affect the design of vehicles, the types of fuels that are used, the choices made by individuals and businesses in purchasing and using vehicles, and how communities and their transportation infrastructure are built and used.

This report is an update of the Center's 2003 report on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From U.S. Transportation

 

Related white papers on Transportation Reauthorization:

A Primer on Federal Surface Transportation Reauthorization and the Highway Trust Fund

Saving Oil and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through U.S. Federal Transportation Policy

 

 

About the Authors:

David L. Greene is a Corporate Fellow of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Senior Fellow of the Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy and a Research Professor of Economics at the University of Tennessee.  He is an author of more than 200 publications on transportation and energy issues.  Mr. Greene is an emeritus member of both the Energy and Alternative Fuels Committees of the Transportation Research Board and a lifetime National Associate of the National Academies. He received the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Barry D. McNutt Award for Excellence in Automotive Policy Analysis, the Department of Energy’s 2007 Hydrogen R&D Award, and was recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for contributions to the IPCC’s receipt of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. He holds a B.A. from Columbia University, an M.A. from the University of Oregon, and a Ph.D. in Geography and Environmental Engineering from The Johns Hopkins University.   

Steven Plotkin is a staff scientist with Argonne National Laboratory’s Center for Transportation Research, specializing in analysis of transportation energy efficiency. He has worked extensively on automobile fuel economy technology and policy as a consultant to the Department of Energy, and was a co-principal investigator on ANL’s Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Mr. Plotkin was a lead author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change 2007:  Mitigation of Climate Change and has been selected to participate on the Fifth Assessment Report. He was for 17 years a Senior Analyst and Senior Associate with the Energy Program of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and prior to that he was an environmental engineer with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mr. Plotkin has a B.S. degree in Civil Engineering from Columbia University and a Master of Engineering (Aerospace) degree from Cornell University. He is the 2005 recipient of the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Barry D. McNutt Award for Excellence in Automotive Policy Analysis.

David L. Greene
Steven E. Plotkin
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Bills of the 113th Congress Concerning Climate Change

The bills, resolutions, and amendments of the 113th Congress dealing with climate change are divided into the following categories:

Climate Change Adaptation

H.R.70: Deficit Reduction, Job Creation, and Energy Security Act
This bill would establish various grants, including a National Grant Program for Coastal and Ocean Sustainability and Health. It would direct funds to be used for coastal management planning and implementation mitigation, restoration, protection, and relocation of coastal communities threatened by the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Shelia Jackson Lee (D-TX) (introduced 1/3/2013).

H.R.152: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013
Overall, the bill provides $5.4 billion for the Federal Emergency Management Agency's disaster relief fund and $5.4 billion to rebuild transportation systems. The Army Corps of Engineers will receive $1.4 billion, part of which will go towards conducting a comprehensive study to address flood risks of vulnerable coastal populations in areas impacted by Hurricane Sandy, part of which will also go towards flood control and construction related to the consequences of Hurricane Sandy. The Department of Housing and Urban Development's community development program will get $3.9 billion, part of which will go towards restoration and infrastructure resiliency. The Federal Highway Administration will get $2 billion, and U.S. EPA will receive $608 million. Sponsor: Rep. Harold Rogers (R-KY) (introduced 1/4/2013). Action: 1/28/2013 Passed in the Senate 62-36; 1/29/2013 signed by the President and became public law No 113-2.

H.R.219: Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013
This bill would streamline environmental review with the effect of expediting hazard mitigation projects, it would allow FEMA to be more flexible when issuing grants, and it would provide grants to reduce debris removal costs, amongst other things. Of particular relevance, 180 days after enactment of this bill, the Administrator of FEMA would be required to submit to Congress recommendations for a national strategy on how to improve the resiliency of local communities and States for the purpose of lowering future costs of disaster response and recovery. Each provision in H.R. 219 was part of the 112th Congress H.R.2903, the FEMA Reauthorization Act of 2012, which passed by voice vote on September 19, 2012. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Denham (R-CA) (introduced 1/14/2013). Action: 1/14/2013 Passed in the House 403-0. For further action, see H.R. 152.

H.R.518: To amend the Reclamation States Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1991 for the purposes of extending the Reclamation States Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1991 through 2018, and for other purposes.
The bill would extend authority and authorizes appropriations for the drought program through FY2018. It also would require cooperative drought contingency plans to provide for periodic review to address projected long-term climate variability and change. Sponsor: Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) (introduced 2/5/2013).

H.R.764: Coastal State Climate Change Planning Act
This bill would amend the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 to direct the Secretary of Commerce to establish a coastal climate change adaptation planning and response program. This program would provide assistance to coastal states to voluntarily develop coastal climate change adaptation plans. It also would provide financial and technical assistance and training for such plans and authorizes the Secretary to make grants to develop and support projects that implement strategies contained in such plans. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 2/15/2013).

H.R.765: Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Act of 2013
This bill would require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to: (1) establish the Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Program. The Program would provide grants to owners or operators of water systems to increase the resiliency or adaptability of the systems to any ongoing or forecasted changes to the hydrologic conditions of a U.S. region, and (2) give priority to owners or operators of water systems that are at the greatest and most immediate risk of facing significant negative impacts due to changing hydrologic conditions. Grant funds used to improve existing water systems would have to be used in a manner that would not further increase net greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 3/1/2013).

H.R.1025: Berryessa Snow Mountain National Conservation Area Act
This bill would establish the Berryessa Snow Mountain National Conservation Area within Napa, Lake, Mendocino, Solano, and Yolo Counties in California. States that the purpose of the Conservation Area is the conservation, protection, and enhancement of the ecological, scenic, wildlife, recreational, cultural, historical, natural, educational, and scientific resources of the lands included in the Area for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. Of relevance, the bill would require the production of plans to manage to manage and conserve the land. Each plan would be required to assess the impacts of climate change on the conservation area. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Thompson (D-CA) (introduced 3/7/2013).

H.R.1187: Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act
This bill would designate specified National Forest System lands, National Park System lands, and public lands in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming as wilderness and as components or additions to existing components of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Of particular note, this bill would establish a federal program to protect, restore, and conserve natural resources in response to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (introduced 3/14/13).

H.R. 1351: Public Lands Service Corps Act of 2013
This bill would make amendments to the Public Lands Service Corps Act of 1993. In particular, it would describe the types of projects that would be carried out by the Public Lands Service Corps under the Act, which include carbon sequestration, and adaptability and resiliency efforts to protect against climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 3/21/2013). Related Bill: S.360.

H.R.1382: Digital Coast Act of 2013
This bill would direct NOAA to establish and implement a constitute-driven platform integrating geospatial data, decision support tools, training, and best practices to address coastal and emergency management issues. This bill articulates a congressional finding that highly accurate, high-resolution remote sensing and geospatial data play an important role in management of the coastal zone and economy, including community resilience to longer range climate change impacts. Sponsor: Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-MD).

H.R.1579: Inclusive Prosperity Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to impose certain taxes and to provide tax credits for certain secured transactions. Of relevance, it would declare Congressional recognition that extreme weather events rooted in climate change, including flood, drought, fire, super storms like Sandy, as well as `slow-onset' events like sea level rise, are wreaking havoc in the United States and across the globe resulting in climate change impacts that jeopardize the lives and livelihoods of Americans, causing large-scale food and energy insecurity in developing countries, and extolling untold economic costs. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 4/16/2013).

H.R. 1834: 21st Century Great Outdoors Commission Act
This bill would establish the 21st Century Great Outdoors Commission, which would assess the use, value, job creation, and economic opportunities associated with the outdoor resources of public lands and other U.S. lands and water areas. The bill articulates a congressional finding that changing demographics, impacts of climate change, lack of public access, and funding shortfalls create challenges for land and recreation managers. The bill would create the opportunity to provide policy recommendations, including recommendations on how to address key challenges such as climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 5/6/2013).

H.R.2023: Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act
This bill would direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop a national strategic action plan to assist health professionals in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) (introduced 5/16/2013).

H.R. 2322: Strengthening the Resiliency of Our Nation on the Ground Act
This bill is intended minimize the future costs and prepare for extreme weather events. It would provide state and local governments with information aimed to improve the resilience of local infrastructure. The “STRONG Act” would create an interagency working group chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy that would assess existing resiliency efforts and find any gaps, then implement a plan to support public and private resiliency efforts. Rep. Scott Peters (D-CA) (introduced June 11, 2013).

H.R.2368: GREEN Act
This bill would direct the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Department of Labor, to award grants to eligible partnerships to develop programs of study that are focused on emerging careers and jobs in the fields of, amongst others, climate change mitigation, and climate change adaptation. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (introduced 6/13/2013).

H.R.2601: Beach Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act relating to beach monitoring. Of relevance, the Administrator would be directed to conduct a study on the long-term impact of climate change on pathogenic contamination of coastal recreation waters. The results of the study would highlight necessary Federal actions to help advance the availability of information and tools to assess and mitigate these effects in order to protect public and ecosystem health. Sponsor: Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ) (introduced 6/28/2013).

H.R.2875: Waterfront of Tomorrow Act of 2013
This bill would authorize programs and activities for the improvement and protection of ports and harbors. Of particular note, this bill would require the Army Corp. to conduct a study on measures to improve flood protection and climate resilience in New York City. Sponsor: Rep. Nydia Velazquez (D-NY) (introduced 7/31/2013).

H.R.4239: To provide drought assistance to the State of California and other affected western States
This bill would provide drought assistance to affected western states. Of relevance, this bill would provide financial assistance to increase the availability of usable water supplies in a watershed or region to benefit the people, the economy, and the environment and include adaptive measures needed to address climate change and future demands. Sponsor: Rep. Jared Huffman (D-CA) (introduced 3/13/2014).

H.R.4461: Climate Change Education Act
This bill would authorize the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to establish a Climate Change Education Program to educate the public about the science and impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Honda (D-CA) (introduced 4/10/2014).

H.CON.RES.13: Expressing the sense of the Congress that the United States Fish and Wildlife Service should incorporate consideration of global warming and sea-level rise into the comprehensive conservation plans for coastal national wildlife refuges, and for other purposes.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI). (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.RES.41: Expressing support for designation of February 12, 2013, as Darwin Day and recognizing the importance of science in the betterment of humanity.
Of relevance, this bill would recognize that the advancement of science must be protected from those unconcerned with the adverse impacts of global warming and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ) (introduced 1/22/2013).

H.Res.68: Expressing support for the goals and ideals of National Marine Awareness Day.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognizes that the ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all carbon dioxide emissions, which causes ocean acidification, affecting marine organisms that use carbonate to build shells or skeletons. Sponsor: Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.RES.220: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the contributions of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize the increasing importance of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in addressing effects of trade on species, while taking into account multiple and compounding threats on species and ecosystems such as over-exploitation, habitat loss, invasive species, disease, and the effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Alcee Hastings (D-FL) (introduced 5/17/2013).

H.RES.467: Expressing support for designation of February 12, 2014, as "Darwin Day" and recognizing the importance of science in the betterment of humanity.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize the advancement of science must be protected from those unconcerned with the adverse impacts of global warming and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ) (introduced 1/29/2014).

H.RES.479: Recognizing the 20th anniversary of the Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations.
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that climate change is one of the biggest public health threats, disproportionately impacting communities less able to recover from extreme weather events and climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 2/11/2014).

H.AMDT.581: Would amend H.R.3826. This amendment would accept the scientific finding that greenhouse gas pollution is “contributing to the long-lasting changes in our climate that can have a range of negative effects.” Sponsor: Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-IL). Action: Failed in House, 190-221.

S.7: Extreme Weather Prevention and Resilience Act
This bill would express the sense of the Senate that Congress should: (1) promote investment to ensure resilience to extreme weather and disasters; (2) promote investment in clean energy infrastructure; (3) promote the development of clean energy technologies; and (4) ensure that the federal government is a leader in reducing pollution, promoting the use of clean energy sources, and improving energy efficiency. Regarding the first expression, it would promote investment to protect communities from extreme weather, sea-level rise, drought, flooding, wildfire, and other changing conditions exacerbated by carbon pollution. Sponsor: Sen. Harry Reid (D-NV). (introduced 1/22/2013).

S.106: Public Access to Historical Records Act
This bill would direct the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish an official dataset on the historical temperature record. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

S.271: Better Health in the Arctic Act
This bill articulates a congressional finding that the impacts of climate change include health problems. Sponsor: Sen. Mark Begich (D-AK) (introduced 2/11/2013).

S.272: Arctic Research, Monitoring, and Observing Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 to direct the Arctic Research Commission to award merit-based grants to federal, state, local, or tribal governments and academic and private organizations to conduct research on or related to the Arctic. Of relevance, the Congress would declare as follows: a lack of research integration and synthesis of findings of Arctic research has impeded the progress of the United States and international community in understanding climate change impacts and feedback mechanisms in the Arctic Ocean, and an improved scientific understanding of the changing Arctic is critical to the development of appropriate and effective regional, national, and global climate change adaptation strategies. Sponsor: Sen. Mark Begich (D-AK) (introduced 2/11/2013).

S.360: Public Lands Service Corps Act of 2013
This bill would make amendments to the Public Lands Service Corps Act of 1993. In particular, it would describe the types of projects that would be carried out by the Public Lands Service Corps under the Act, which include carbon sequestration, and adaptability and resiliency efforts to protect against climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) (introduced 2/14/2013). Action: 6/18/2013: reported out of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee by a voice vote.

S.839: Coral Reef Conservation Amendments Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to transfer certain authority from the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to the Secretary of Commerce. It would direct the Secretary to submit to Congress a national coral reef ecosystem action strategy, which would include discussions of various dangers to reef ecosystems including climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Bill Nelson (D-FL) (introduced 4/25/2013).

S.1202: SAFE Act
This bill would establish a Federal program designed to respond to ongoing and expected impacts of extreme weather and climate change. It would establish a Natural Resources Climate Change Adaptation Panel composed of the heads of U.S. Federal agencies or departments with jurisdiction over natural resources and tribal representatives. The panel would focus on protecting, restoring, and conserving natural resources so that natural resources become more resilient, adapt to, and withstand the ongoing and expected impacts of extreme weather and climate change. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior, in collaboration with the States, Indian tribes, and other partner organizations, would establish a National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center within the United States Geological Survey. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 6/20/2013).

S.1205: Local Energy Supply and Resiliency Act of 2013
The bill would require the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to provide assistance in identifying, evaluating, planning, and designing local energy infrastructure. In evaluating projects, the Secretary would be required to give priority to projects that have the greatest potential for strengthening the reliability of local energy supplies and boosting the resiliency of energy infrastructure to the impact of extreme weather events, power grid failures, and interruptions in supply of fossil fuels; minimizing environmental impact, including regulated air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and use of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Sponsor: Sen. Al Franken (D-MN) (introduced 6/20/2013).

S.1508: Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Act of 2013
This bill would require the EPA to establish a program of awarding grants to owners or operators of water systems to increase their resilience. Of particular relevance, water systems for communities and agriculture production to improve water supply reliability, storage, should not result in a net increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD) (introduced 9/17/2013).

S.2042: Clean Estuaries Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill would require management conferences convened with respects to estuaries to address the effects of climate change on the estuary, and to develop and implement adaptation strategies. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 2/26/2014).

S.2226: WaterSense Efficiency, Conservation, and Adaptation Act of 2014
This bill articulates a congressional finding that human-induced climate change is affecting the natural water cycle, decreasing rainfall levels in the West, and making droughts and floods more frequent and more intense. Of relevance, this bill would establish a Blue Bank for Water Systems Mitigation and Adaptation to provide grants for owners or operators of water systems for the purposes of mitigating or adapting to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) (introduced 4/9/2014).

Clean Energy

H.R.400: Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Act of 2013
This bill would require the Secretary of Commerce to establish a Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing and Export Assistance Fund, to be administered through the International Trade Administration. It also would require the Secretary to administer the Fund to promote policies that would reduce production costs and encourage innovation, investment, and productivity in the clean energy technology sector, and implement a national clean energy technology export strategy. Clean energy technologies would be defined as those related to the production, use, transmission, storage, control, or conservation of energy that aim to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

H.R.1138: Small Business Clean Energy Financing Act of 2013
This bill would direct the Administrator of the Small Business Administration to establish a program to guarantee loans of small technology manufacturing businesses that would contribute to a stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations in the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 3/13/2013).

H.R.1696: Master Limited Partnerships Parity Act
This bill extends the publicly traded partnership ownership structure (i.e., master limited partnerships) to energy power generation projects, transportation fuels, and related energy activities. These include renewable energy, electricity storage devices, combined heat and power, renewable thermal energy, waste heat to power, renewable fuel infrastructure, renewable fuels, energy efficient buildings, gasification with sequestration, and carbon capture and storage. Sponsors: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (introduced 4/24/2013). Related Bill: S.795.

H.R.2685: Smart Grid Advancement Act of 2013
This bill would require DOE and EPA to assess the potential of smart grid integration and capabilities in all products reviewed under Energy Star. The bill would also establish smart grid peak demand reduction goals. The bill would also require an analysis of the potential energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and electricity cost savings from smart grid products. Sponsor: Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA) (introduced 7/12/2013).

H.AMDT.67: Would amend H.R.3. This amendment would delay effect of the bill unless the president found that tar sands producers could fully offset the additional greenhouse gas emissions produced annually. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA). Action: Failed in the House 146-269.

S.AMDT.454: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create international programs to export clean energy technologies and aid climate adaptation efforts, including those designed to reduce short-lived climate pollutants in the near term. Sponsor: Sen. Chris Murphy (D-CT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.499: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. Amends S.CON.RES.8 (FY2014 Senate budget resolution). This amendment would establish a deficit-neutral reserve fund to ensure that abundant domestic energy sources and technologies could meet present and future greenhouse gas emissions rules. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013). Action: Agreed to in Senate by unanimous consent.

S.570: A bill to establish a competitive grant program in the Department of Energy to provide grants to States and units of local government to carry out clean energy and carbon reduction measures, to close big oil company tax loopholes to pay for the competitive grant program and reduce the deficit, and for other purposes
See title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO) (introduced 3/14/2013).

S.795: Master Limited Partnerships Parity Act
This bill extends the publicly traded partnership ownership structure (i.e., master limited partnerships) to energy power generation projects, transportation fuels, and related energy activities. These include renewable energy, electricity storage devices, combined heat and power, renewable thermal energy, waste heat to power, renewable fuel infrastructure, renewable fuels, energy efficient buildings, gasification with sequestration, and carbon capture and storage. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE). (introduced 4/24/2013). Related Bill: H.R.1696.

S.1627: American Renewable Energy and Efficiency Act
This bill would establish a federal renewable electricity standard of 25% by 2025. Of particular relevance, qualified biomass would be defined as renewable biomass that results in a 50-percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy, as compared to the operation of a combined cycle natural gas power plant using the most efficient commercial available technology. Sponsor: Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA) (introduced 10/31/2013).

S.1952: Green Act
This bill would authorize the Secretary of Education to award competitive grants to develop programs of study focused on clean energy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, climate change mitigation, and climate adaptation. Sponsor: Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) (introduced 1/16/2014).

Energy Tax Reform  Discussion Draft
This bill would overhaul federal energy tax credits and establish a technology-neutral tax credit based on greenhouse gas emissions; the cleaner the facility, the larger the tax credit. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT) (introduced 12/18/2014).

Energy Efficiency

H.R. 1616: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. In addition, the legislation would clarify that Energy Service Companies and Utility Service Contracts could be used by federal agencies to install natural gas and electric vehicle charging infrastructure, which would facilitate the use of these vehicles. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 4/18/2013). Related Bills: S.761, S.1392.

H.R.2126: Better Buildings Act of 2013
This bill would facilitate better alignment, cooperation, and best practices between commercial real estate landlords and tenants regarding energy efficiency in buildings. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 5/23/2013). Action: 3/5/2014 Passed in the House 375-36. Related Bill: S.1191.

H.R.2863: GREEN Jobs Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act of 1994 to allow financial and technical assistance to small businesses that provide green jobs (e.g., jobs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants) to low-income individuals. Sponsor: Rep. Donald Payne (D-NJ) (introduced 7/30/13).

S.761: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. In addition, the legislation would clarify that Energy Service Companies and Utility Service Contracts could be used by federal agencies to install natural gas and electric vehicle charging infrastructure, which would facilitate the use of these vehicles. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH). (introduced 4/18/2013; Reported by Committee 5/8/2013). Related Bill: H.R. 1616, S.1392.

S.1191: Better Buildings Act of 2013
This bill would facilitate better alignment, cooperation, and best practices between commercial real estate landlords and tenants regarding energy efficiency in buildings. Of relevance, the impact on climate change would not be a factor in determining the energy efficiency of commercial building tenants. Sponsor: Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO) (introduced 6/19/2013). Related Bill: H.R.2126

S.1213: Weatherization Enhancement, and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act
This bill would reauthorize Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for low-income persons for FY2014-2018. The bill articulates a congressional finding that WAP reduces residential and power plant emissions of carbon dioxide by 2.65 metric tons each year per home. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE) (introduced 6/25/2013). Related Bill: S.2052.

S.1392: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013
This bill is intended to increase the use of energy efficient technologies in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The legislation would strengthen national model building codes, require the Secretary of Energy to encourage States, Indian Tribes and local governments to meet or exceed target building efficiency standards, and require the Secretary of Energy to provide grants for the establishment of training and assessment centers, for the purpose of building a workforce skilled in developing and applying energy efficient technological and design concepts to commercial and institutional buildings. Through finance initiatives, it would facilitate private investment in the research and development of energy efficient technologies and efficiency upgrades. In addition, a number of incentives would be put in place for manufacturers to use more efficient electric motors and transformers in industrial processes. The federal government, the single largest U.S. energy user, would be required to institute energy saving techniques for computers. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (introduced 7/30/2013). Related Bills: H.R.1616, S.761.

S.2052: Weatherization Enhancement and Local Energy Efficiency Investment and Accountability Act
This bill would reauthorize Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for low-income persons for FY2014-2018. The bill articulates a congressional finding that WAP reduces residential and power plant emissions of carbon dioxide by 2.65 metric tons each year per home. Sponsor: Sen. Christopher Coons (D-DE) (introduced 2/27/2014). Related Bill: S.1213.

S.2074: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2014
This bill builds on the previously introduced S.1392, the Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013. Of note, this proposal would establish a Tenant Star program to promote energy efficiency in leased commercial buildings, requires benchmarking of energy use in federally-leased buildings, establishes a Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) demonstration project using energy savings contracts to perform retrofits on low-income housing, remove the third-party testing of electronic product requirement for the Energy Star program partners that are in compliance, exclude thermal storage water heaters under energy efficiency standards, and requires federal mortgage underwriting to include a home’s expected energy cost savings when determining the value of home mortgage. Sponsor: Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) (introduced 2/27/2014). Related Bills: H.R.2126, H.R.3820, H.R.4092, S.1106, S.1191, S.1206, S.1392, S.1739.

Transportation

H.R.974: MOVE Freight Act of 2013
This bill would establish a national freight network, composed of highways, railways, navigable waterways, seaports, airports, freight intermodal connectors, and aerotropolis transportation systems most critical to the multimodal movement of freight with the goal of improving the efficiency of the system. This would include providing competitive grants and planning assistance. Of particular relevance, in determining whether to award a grant, the Secretary of Transportation must consider the extent to which the project reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Albio Sires (D-NJ) (introduced 3/5/2013).

H.R.1027: Advanced Vehicle Technology Act of 2013
This bill would authorize DOE to conduct a program of basic and applied research, development, engineering, demonstration, and commercial application in vehicle technologies to reduce oil consumption. The bill articulates a congressional finding that the transportation sector accounts for 28 percent of U.S. primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Gary Peters (D-MI) (introduced 3/7/2013).

H.R. 1364: New Alternative Transportation to Give American Solutions Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to provide tax credits for medium- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles and natural gas vehicle refueling infrastructure. This bill articulates a sense of Congress that EPA’s new fuel-economy and greenhouse gas emission regulations for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should provide incentives to encourage and reward manufacturers who produce natural gas powered vehicles. Sponsor: Rep. John Larson (D-CT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

H.R.2075: Electric Transportation Advancement Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 by adding a provision that would establish or maintain a competitive grant and revolving loan program. In selecting grant and loan recipients, the Secretary of Energy would be required to consider the overall cost- effectiveness of a proposed, qualified electric transportation project in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (introduced 5/21/2013).

H.R.2242: State and Local Fleet Efficiency Act
By imposing purchasing requirements, this bill would promote the use of natural gas, flexible fuel, and high-efficiency motor vehicle fleets. Of relevance, the bill explicitly states that it would not limit the authority of any State or local government to establish purchase requirements applicable to fleets if such requirements are intended to further any policy regarding climate change and the control of air pollution, amongst other things. Sponsor: Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY) (introduced 6/4/2013).

H.R.3638: Road Usage Fee Pilot Program Act of 2013
This bill would require the Secretary of Treasury to establish competitive grants under a Road Use Fee Pilot Program to states and localities. Of relevance, this bill would establish three working groups, one of which will evaluate the program potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 12/6/2013).

S.387: American Infrastructure Investment Fund Act
In general, this bill would attempt to stimulate investment for infrastructure and related projects. Of particular relevance, the bill would establish a fund to support environmental sustainability efforts of national or regional transportation systems. This would include ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the bill would establish a competitive grant program for projects that improve further the transportation system. In determining whether to award a grant, the Secretary of Transportation would consider the extent to which the project improves energy efficiency or reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Jay Rockefeller (D-WV) (introduced 2/26/2013).

Natural Gas

H.R.1189: American Natural Gas Security and Consumer Protection Act
This bill would amend the Natural Gas Act to prohibit any person from exporting any natural gas from the United States to a foreign country without first having secured authorization from the Secretary of Energy (DOE). Of particular relevance, the bill would direct the Secretary to issue final regulations for determining whether an export of natural gas from the United States to a foreign country is in the public interest. A measure of public interest would include the ability of the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 3/14/2013).

H.R.4338: Pipeline Modernization and Consumer Protection Act
This bill would require gas pipeline operators to accelerate the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of gas piping or equipment that is leaking, may pose a high-risk of leaking, or may no longer be fit for service. This bill also articulates a congressional finding that methane (i.e., natural gas) is a greenhouse gas that is at least 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) (introduced 3/27/2014). Related bill: S.1767.

H.R.4339: Pipeline Revolving Fund and Job Creation Act
This bill would require the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to establish revolving loan funds to repair or replace natural gas distribution pipelines. Each state receiving a grant will be required to publish a list of eligible projects, its priority on the list and expected funding schedule, and include an estimate of expected reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for that project. Sponsor: Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) (introduced 3/27/2014). Related bill: S.1767.

S.1767: Pipeline Modernization and Consumer Protection Act
This bill would require gas pipeline operators to accelerate the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of gas piping or equipment that is leaking, may pose a high-risk of leaking, or may no longer be fit for service. This bill also articulates a congressional finding that methane (i.e., natural gas) is a greenhouse gas that is at least 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bills: H.R.4338.

S.1768: Pipeline Revolving Fund and Job Creation Act
This bill would require the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to establish revolving loan funds to repair or replace natural gas distribution pipelines. Each state receiving a grant will be required to publish a list of eligible projects, its priority on the list and expected funding schedule, and include an estimate of expected reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for that project. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bills: H.R.4339.

S.2088: American Natural Gas Security and Consumer Protection Act
Of relevance, this bill would require the Secretary of Energy, when considering an application for export of natural gas, to consider such factors as the ability of the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) (introduced 3/6/2014).

Other Greenhouse Gases

H.R.1220: Asthma Inhalers Relief Act of 2013
This bill would direct the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to permit the distribution, sale, and consumption in the United States of CFC epinephrine inhalers. It would prohibit EPA from enforcing upon or restricting the distribution, sale, or consumption of CFC epinephrine inhalers on the basis of any federal law implementing the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 3/15/2013).

H.R. 1943: SUPER Act of 2013
This bill would create a task force to review existing policies and develop best practices aimed at combating significant drivers of global climate change. This task force would find gaps and overlaps among the already existing efforts of multiple levels of government and coalesce them in order to achieve super pollutant reductions. Super pollutants include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons. Sponsor: Rep. Scott Peters (D-CA) (introduced 5/9/2013).

H.R.3424: Converting Methane Into Petroleum Act of 2013
This bill would provide a tax credit for facilities using a qualified methane conversion technology (e.g., technology that has a lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production and combustion than conventional petroleum fuel sources) to provide transportation fuels and chemicals. Sponsor: Rep. John Larson (D-CT) (introduced 10/30/2013).

International

H.R.1793: Global Partnerships Act of 2013
This bill would establish a new framework for U.S. foreign assistance. Of particular relevance, this bill would provide foreign assistance to mitigate and adapt to climate change and establish debt-for-nature exchanges for a range of activities including projects that address the effects of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA) (introduced 4/26/2013).

H.R.2610: Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014
This bill would provide annual funding for various programs under the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and other federal agencies. Of particular note, funds from this bill could not be used to implement the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme for aviation. Sponsor: Rep. Tom Latham (R-IA) (introduced 7/2/2013). Related Bills: H.R.3547, H.Res.312, S.1243.

H.R.3570: To prohibit the United States from following guidance issued by the Secretary of the Treasury regarding how multilateral development banks should engage with developing countries on coal-fired power generation, and for other purposes
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 11/21/2013).

H.CON.RES.7: Expressing the sense of Congress that the United States should provide, on an annual basis, an amount equal to at least one percent of United States gross domestic product (GDP) for nonmilitary foreign assistance programs.
The bill acknowledges the importance of contributing to global efforts that combat climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 1/4/2013).

H.CON.RES.36: Recognizing the disparate impact of climate change on women and the efforts of women globally to address climate change.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 4/26/2013).

S.AMDT.440: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a deficit-neutral reserve fund relating to global warming. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 3/21/2013).

Other Climate Action

H.R.547: Border Security and Responsibility Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agencies to submit a border protection strategy to Congress. Of relevance, agencies would be required to develop and implement a monitoring and mitigation plan, which would include measures to protect habitat to ensure animal species are able to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) (introduced 2/6/2013).

H.R.1807: The Residential Energy and Economic Savings (TREES) Act
This bill would establish a grant program to assist retail power providers to support targeted residential tree-planting programs for a number of reasons including utilizing trees to lower ambient temperature and absorb carbon dioxide. Sponsor: Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) (introduced 5/3/2013).

H.R.1890: Balancing Food, Farm, and the Environment Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Food Security Act of 1985 and would allow farmers to be rewarded for their carbon sequestration efforts through USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Regional funding would also be available for farmer-led efforts to increase resilience to rising temperatures and extreme weather. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 5/8/2013). Related Bill: S.923

H.R.2182: Half in Ten Act of 2013
This bill would establish a Federal Interagency Working Group on Reducing Poverty within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The working group would develop a National Strategy to reduce the number of persons living in poverty in America in half within 10 years after release of the 2012 Census report on Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011. The bill acknowledges that individuals and families in poverty are more socially vulnerable to natural disasters, extreme weather and impacts of climate change and have greater difficulty preparing for, responding to and recovering from such events. Sponsor: Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) (introduced 5/23/2013).

H.R.2553: National Infrastructure Development Bank Act of 2013
This bill would establish a National Infrastructure Development Bank. Of particular note, reduction in greenhouse gases would be one factor considered for transportation, environmental, and energy infrastructure projects. Sponsor: Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) (introduced 6/27/2013).

H.R.3163: CIR ASAP Act of 2013
This bill would provide for comprehensive immigration reform. This bill would require federal agencies to submit a border protection strategy to Congress. Of relevance, agencies would be required to develop and implement a monitoring and mitigation plan, which would include measures to protect habitat to ensure animal species are able to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-NM) (introduced 9/20/2013).

H.R.3563: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would establish a corporate responsibility investment fund option under the Thrift Savings Account. One criterion for selection under this fund is environmental practices (including greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to climate change). This bill articulates a congressional finding that the United States National Research Council has established that human activity is largely responsible for recent climate change and threatens significant harm to our Nation’s public health and welfare, security, agriculture and forestry, natural resources, infrastructure, and economy. Sponsor: Rep. James Langevin (D-RI) (introduced 11/20/2013). Related Bills: S.1746.

H.R. 4097: Salmon Solutions and Planning Act
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that without action, climate change will continue to have detrimental effects on North American coldwater fish. This bill would also require the Army Corp of Engineers to update its Final Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report, and to consider factors such as current and expected future climate change impacts on Columbia and Snake River salmon and steelhead population and their habitats. Sponsor: Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA) (introduced 2/26/2014).

H.R. 4159: America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill would require the Department of Energy to carry out climate science research, which includes modeling greenhouse gas emissions, informing mitigation and adaptation options. Sponsor: Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) (introduced 3/6/2014).

H.AMDT.541: Would amend H.R.3590. This amendment would promote the Secretary of Interior’s authority to include climate change as a consideration in making decisions related to conservation and recreation on public lands. Sponsor: Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ). Action: Failed in the House, 181-242.

S.923: Balancing Food, Farm, and the Environment Act of 2013 (introduced in conjunction with H.R. 1890)
This bill would amend the Food Security Act of 1985 and allow farmers to be rewarded for their carbon sequestration efforts through USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Regional funding would also be available for farmer-led efforts to increase resilience to rising temperatures and extreme weather. Sponsor: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) (introduced 5/9/2013).

S.1746: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would establish a corporate responsibility investment fund option under the Thrift Savings Account. One criterion for selection under this fund would be environmental practices (including greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to climate change). This bill articulates a congressional finding that the United States National Research Council has established that human activity is largely responsible for recent climate change and threatens significant harm to our Nation’s public health and welfare, security, agriculture and forestry, natural resources, infrastructure, and economy. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 11/20/2013). Related Bills: H.R.3563.

S.2100: Clean Cookstoves and Fuels Support Act
Of relevance, this bill would expressly recognize that black carbon emissions from residential cookstoves in developing countries account for an estimated 21 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions, and that mitigation in this sector represents a large potential public health benefit. This bill would authorize appropriations Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and foreign governments. Sponsor: Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) (introduced 3/10/2014).

Renewable Fuels

H.R.1469: LEVEL Act
This bill would revise certain aspects of the renewable fuels program under the Clean Air Act by: redefining “renewable fuel”; revoking the requirements that renewable fuel achieve a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions; reducing the volume of renewable fuel required to be in gasoline sold or introduced in the United States; requiring EIA to estimate the volumes of gasoline (current of transportation fuel, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic biofuel) projected to be sold or introduced in the following year; making one gallon of cellulosic biomass or waste-derived ethanol equivalent to 2.5 gallons of renewable fuel; repealing provisions concerning cellulosic biofuel and biomass-based diesel; and repealing requirements that EPA promulgate fuel regulations to implement measures to mitigate adverse impacts on air quality as the result of renewable fuel requirements. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 4/10/2013).

H.R.1482: Renewable Fuel Standard Amendments Act
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to eliminate certain requirements under the renewable fuel program, including the modification of greenhouse gas reduction percentages. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Womack (R-AR) (introduced 4/12/2013).

H.R.2478: Section 526 Repeal Act
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to repeal the requirement that federal agencies procure alternative fuels that have lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Conaway (R-TX) (introduced 6/25/2013). Related Bills: S.1100

H.AMDT.380: Would amend H.R.2397. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 237-189.

H.AMDT.132: Would amend H.R.2217. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by voice vote.

H.AMDT.316: Would amend H.R.2609. This amendment would prohibit use of funds to enforce the section of the Energy Independence and Security Act which prohibits federal agencies from purchasing alternative fuels unless its lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are less than or equal to conventional oil. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX). Action: Agreed by voice vote.

S.1100: North American Alternative Fuels Act
This bill would amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to repeal the requirement that federal agencies procure alternative fuels that have lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum sources. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 6/6/2013). Related Bills: H.R.2478.

Carbon Tax

H.R.1486: No Carbon Tax Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from devising or implementing a carbon tax. Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall, II (R-WV) (introduced 4/11/2013).

H.R.4393: To prohibit any Federal agency or official, in carrying out any Act or program to reduce the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on climate change, from imposing a fee or tax on gaseous emissions emitted directly by livestock
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Fortenberry (R-NE) (introduced 4/03/2014).

H.CON.RES.8: Expressing the opposition of Congress to Federal efforts to establish a carbon tax on fuels for electricity and transportation.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 1/15/2013).

H.CON.RES.24: Expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax would be detrimental to the United States economy.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA) (introduced 3/14/2013).

H.AMDT.448: Would amend H.R.367. This amendment would require the Administration to receive approval from Congress before implementing a carbon tax (i.e., a carbon price). Sponsor: Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 237-176.

S. 332: The Climate Protection Act
This bill would establish a fee on the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from major emitters. It would also place a tax on oil and natural gas imports from countries that do not already charge a carbon tax. It is estimated that the carbon tax would generate $1.2 trillion in revenue over 10 years. Revenue from the bill would be used to, among other things: rebate all U.S. residents; support activities intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (including those promoting energy efficiency and low-emitting energy technologies); fund programs to provide training for workers moving to clean energy jobs; reduce the deficit; and fund climate change-resilient infrastructure. The bill would also require full disclosure of chemicals used during the hydrofracturing process. Sponsors: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 2/14/2013).

S. CON.RES.4: A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of Congress that a Carbon tax is not in the economic interest of the United States.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/28/2013).

S.AMDT.261: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would provide a point of order against legislation that would create a federal tax or a fee on carbon emissions. Sponsor: Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate by a vote of 53-46.

S.AMDT.646: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would establish a tax on carbon pollution and would require that any revenue raised be returned to the American people in the form of deficit reduction, reduced federal tax rates, and other cost savings. Sponsor: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate by a vote of 41-58.

Carbon Pollution Fee Discussion Draft
This bill would establish a fee on the emissions of greenhouse gases from major emitters. Seeking comments on the use of revenues, such as: mitigating energy costs for low-income households, reducing the federal deficit, reducing the tax liability for individuals and businesses, protecting jobs of energy-intensive trade exposed industries, and investing in other activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sponsors: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) (introduced 3/12/2013).

Elimination of Tax Credit for Carbon Capture and Storage

H.R.243: Bowles-Simpson Plan of Lowering America's Debt Act
This bill would adopt reforms recommended by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (i.e., Bowles-Simpson Plan) to reduce spending and make the Federal Government more efficient. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Dennis Ross (R-FL) (introduced 1/14/2013).

H.R.259: Energy Freedom and Economic Prosperity Act
This bill would repeal credits for many renewable energy initiatives, as well as any credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (CCS). Specifically related to CCS, it would apply to any carbon captured after December 21, 2014. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 1/15/2013).

H.R.505: Balancing Act
This bill would repeal certain sequestration requirements implemented by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Pub.L. 112-25). Of relevance, this bill would end the Sec.45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery). Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 4/23/2013).

H.R.609: End Big Oil Tax Subsidies Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel subsidies for large oil companies. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed for taxpayers that are not a small independent oil and gas company. Sponsor: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) (introduced 2/12/2013).

H.R.1569: New Fair Deal Busting America's Rigid Outdated & Needless Subsidies Act of 2013.
This bill would amend the Internal Revenue Code to repeal tax credits for alternative fuel mixtures, plug-in electric drive motor vehicles, enhanced oil recovery tax credit and the tax credit for producing oil and gas from marginal wells, producing electricity from certain renewable resources, and for carbon dioxide sequestration. Sponsor: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) (introduced 4/15/2013)

H.R.3574: End Polluter Welfare Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel tax breaks and eliminate fossil fuel research and development programs and projects. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bill: S.1762.

S. 329: The Sustainable Energy Act
This bill would eliminate certain fossil fuel subsidies and remove limited liability grants to certain oil and gas projects. Of particular relevance, section 45Q (relating to credit for carbon dioxide sequestration) would not apply to carbon dioxide captured after the date of the enactment of the Sustainable Energy Act. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 2/14/2013).

S.1762: End Polluter Welfare Act of 2013
This bill would repeal fossil fuel tax breaks and eliminate fossil fuel research and development programs and projects. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) (introduced 11/21/2013). Related Bill: H.R.3574.

S.AMDT.501: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would establish a deficit-neutral reserve fund relating to the commercialization of carbon technologies such as carbon capture, carbon storage, and other carbon utilization technologies required for coal and natural gas electric generating units (EGUs) to meet proposed and future greenhouse gas regulations. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013).

H.R.___: Tax Reform Act of 2014
This draft bill would overhaul the federal tax code. Of particular note, Sec. 45Q tax credit for carbon dioxide sequestration (including for enhanced oil recovery) would be repealed. Sponsor: Rep. Dave Camp (R-MI) (introduced 2/26/2014).

Budget

H.Amdt.2 to H.R.3547: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014
This omnibus bill would fund federal agencies until the end of the fiscal year 2014. Of note, this bill would block DOE funding for the implementation or enforcement of the federal light bulb efficiency standard, would bar the administration prohibiting funding of new coal-fired power plants overseas until September 30, and would require the president to submit a report detailing federal agency funding for climate change programs, projects, and activities in fiscal year 2013 and 2014. Sponsor: Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX) (introduced 11/20/2013). Action: Passed in the House 12/2/2013 and passed in the Senate 12/12/2013; 1/17/2014 signed by the President.

H.CON.RES.25: Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.
Of relevance, this bill would allow the Senate Budget Committee Chairman to reallocate funds, in a deficit-neutral manner, to ensure greenhouse gas emission standards must be cost effective, based on the best available science, and benefit low- and middle-income families. Sponsor: Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: 3/21/2013, Passed in the House 221-207.

S.1372: Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2014
This bill would provide annual funding for various programs under the State Department and other federal agencies. Of particular relevance, this bill includes $216 million for the Clean Technology Fund, $68 million for the Strategic Climate Fund, and $144 million for the Global Environmental Facility. Sponsor: Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT) (introduced 7/25/2013).

S.CON.RES.8: An original concurrent resolution setting forth the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014, revising the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal year 2013, and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.
This bill would establish a broad framework for the federal budget. During debate on the bill, the following amendments were added that pertain to climate change: S.Amdt.184, S.Amdt.482, S.Amdt.494, S.Amdt.499, S.Amdt.619, Please see below for the summaries of these amendments. Sponsor: Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: Agreed to in the Senate by a vote of 50 – 49.

Keystone XL

H.R.3: Northern Route Approval Act
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that the Department of State found that incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Keystone XL project are estimated in the range of 0.07 to 0.83 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent with the upper end of this range representing twelve one-thousandths of one percent of the 6,702 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2011. This bill would not require a presidential permit for the Keystone pipeline. Sponsor: Rep. Lee Terry (R-NE) (introduced 3/15/2013). Action: 5/22/2013 Passed in the House 241-175.

H.R.71: Coral Reef Conservation Act Reauthorization and Enhancement Amendments of 2013
This bill would reauthorize the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to extend the remaining coral reef conservation program grant funds. Of relevance, this bill would require the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to submit a report to Congress every five years detailing implementation of the National Coral Reef Action Strategy. This report would include an assessment of actions taken to address climate change related threats to coral reef ecosystems. Sponsor: Rep. Madeline Bordallo (D-GU) (introduced 1/3/2013).

H.R.2674: Job Creation Act of 2013
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that the Department of State found that incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Keystone XL project are estimated in the range of 0.07 to 0.83 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent with the upper end of this range representing twelve one-thousandths of one percent of the 6,702 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2011. This bill would not require a presidential permit for the Keystone pipeline. Rep. Vern Buchanan (R-FL) (introduced 7/11/2013).

H.RES.214: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that extensive scientific and technical studies and analyses by the Department of State and other Federal agencies have affirmed that the proposed Keystone XL pipeline is an environmentally sound project.
Refer to the title for summary. Of relevance, this bill notes the State Department assessment that found the incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with Keystone XL are less than 1 percent of 2011 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. Sponsor: Rep. Randy Weber (R-TX) (introduced 1/15/2013).

Curbing Climate Action

H.R.367: Regulations From the Executive in Need of Scrutiny Act of 2013
This bill would require congressional review of federal regulations. A joint resolution of approval would be required for a major rule that: has resulted in or is likely to result in an annual effect on the economy of $50 million or more (the current figure is $100 million), is determined by the EPA administrator to have significant adverse effects on global economic competitiveness, has a significant impact on agricultural entities, implements or provides the implementation of a carbon tax, or a rule under the Affordable Care Act) to take effect. (Currently, major rules take effect unless a joint resolution disapproving them is enacted.) The bill also establishes Congressional disapproval procedures for non-major rules. Sponsor: Rep. Todd Young (R-OH) (introduced 1/23/2013). Action: 8/2/2013 Passed in the House 232-183.

H.R. 621: To prohibit funding for the Environmental Protection Agency to be used to implement or enforce a cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases, and for other purposes.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Ted Poe (R-TX) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.R.662: To prohibit United States contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO) (introduced 2/13/2013).

H.R.1304: Flexibility to Farm Act
This bill would allow the chief executive of a state to exempt farmers from a requirement of a covered federal environmental law by determining that such a requirement is unduly burdensome. Covered environmental law includes regulations under the Clean Air Act. This bill articulates a congressional finding that EPA regulation of greenhouse gases as an air pollutant under the Clean Air Act could impose an undue burden on agriculture producers. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Walberg (R-MI) (introduced 3/2013).

H.R. 1582: Energy Consumers Relief Act of 2013
Of relevance, the bill would prohibit the use of the social cost of carbon (i.e., any estimate that monetizes the damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in an given year) in the cost-benefit analysis of energy-related regulations with an estimated cost greater than $1 billion until a law is enacted authorizing such use. Sponsor: Rep. Bill Cassidy (R-LA) (introduced 4/16/2013) Action: 8/1/2013 Passed in the House 232-181.

H.R.1881: Energy Production and Project Delivery Act of 2013
This bill would promote oil and gas production by repealing the prohibition against leasing or other development leading to production of oil and gas from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), by deeming the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) to have approved the Draft Proposed Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2010-2015. Of relevance, the bill prohibits the Administrator or the head of any other Federal agency or department from regulating or continuing to implement or enforce any regulations, proposals, or actions establishing any carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions reductions until the Administrator, the Administrator of the Energy Information Agency, and the Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Russian Federation have proposed, implemented, and enforced carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas measures. The bill also prohibits the consideration of the impact of any greenhouse gas or climate change on any species of fish or wildlife or plant in the implementation of this Act.” Sponsor: Rep. Bob Bishop (R-UT) (introduced 5/8/2013).

H.R.2081: No More Excuses Energy Act of 2013
This bill would prescribe a number of actions with the goal of increasing domestic energy production. Such actions would include requiring the President to designate at least 10 sites for oil or natural gas refineries on federal lands and make the sites available to the private sector for construction of refineries, prohibiting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) from denying an application for nuclear waste disposal on the grounds of present or future insufficient capacity, repealing the prohibition against producing oil and gas from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In addition, the EPA Administrator would be unable to promulgate any regulation regarding the emission of a greenhouse gas to address climate change under the Act. In addition, the Act would exclude "greenhouse gas" from the definition of "air pollutant" under the Clean Air Act except in connection with concerns other than climate change. Sponsor: Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-TX) (introduced 5/21/2013).

H.R.2127: To prohibit the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from finalizing any rule imposing any standard of performance for carbon dioxide emissions from any existing or new source that is a fossil fuel-fired electric utility generating unit unless and until carbon capture and storage is found to be technologically and economically feasible.
See title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 5/23/2013).

H.R.2593: Cost-Benefit and Regulatory Transparency Enhancement Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agencies, after completing any cost-benefit analysis or regulatory impact analysis used to promulgate rules, guidelines, or administrative actions to: submit a report to Congress on the results and methods (including methods in determining the social cost of carbon) used in the analysis; and to publish the report in the Federal Register. Sponsor: Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA) (introduced 6/28/2013).

H.R.2886: Social Cost of Transparency Enhancement Act of 2013
This bill would require federal agency notice and receipt of public comment before using any estimate of the social of carbon for rulemaking. Sponsor: Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA) (introduced 7/31/2013).

H.R.2948: Transparency in Regulatory Analysis of Impacts on the Nation Act of 2013
This bill would require the President to establish the Committee for the Cumulative Analysis of Regulations that Impact Energy and Manufacturing in the United States. The committee would analyze and report on the cumulative and incremental impacts of covered rules and actions of the EPA concerning air, waste, water, and climate change for each of calendar years 2018, 2023, and 2030. Sponsor: Rep. Jim Matheson (D-UT) (introduced 8/1/2013).

H.R.3033: Energy Security and Employment Act
This bill would expand domestic energy production in the United States. Of relevance, this bill would repeal EPA greenhouse gas regulations. Sponsor: Rep. Robert Latta (R-OH) (introduced 9/13/2013).

H.R.3042: Taking Hold of Regulations to Increase Vital Employment In Energy Act
This bill would prohibit federal agencies from using the social cost of carbon in any regulatory impact analysis until a federal law is enacted authorizing its use. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Murphy (R-PA) (introduced 9/13/2013).

H.R.3140: Ensure Reliable and Affordable American Energy Act of 2013
This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to prohibit regulation of carbon dioxide from power plants until the EPA administrator certifies a sufficient number of countries (accounting for not less than 80 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions) have implemented regulations under this Act that are just as stringent. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 9/19/2013).

H.R.3355: Reducing Employer Burdens, Unleashing Innovation, and Labor Development Act of 2013
Of relevance, this bill would require a cost-benefit report to Congress before finalizing any energy-related regulations. EPA would be prohibited from finalizing the rule if the Secretary of Energy determines the rule would cause significant adverse effects on the economy. The bill would also prohibit EPA from using the social cost of carbon in any energy-related regulations established to cost more than $1 billion until Congress authorizes such use. Sponsor: Rep. Brett Guthrie (R-KY) (introduced 10/28/2013).

H.R.3684: Listen to Americans First Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit federal funds from being used for foreign travel by the Administrator of the EPA until the EPA has held public listening sessions on rulemaking for GHG regulations for existing power plants in 15 state with the highest percentage of electricity generated by coal, and the Administrator certifies the listening sessions have taken place. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 12/10/2013).

H.R.3702: Federal Employees Responsible Investment Act
This bill would require EPA to submit a report to Congress on regulations (after enactment of this bill) that would reduce the sulfur content of gasoline, or new air pollutant standards for refineries, including greenhouse gas emissions. Congress would have to enact a law setting the effective date for the rule. Sponsor: Rep. Jack Kingston (R-GA) (introduced 12/11/2013).

H.R.3727: Keep the EPA Honest Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the EPA from proposing EPA greenhouse gas standards for existing power plants before finalizing such standards for new power plants. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 12/12/2013).

H.R.3826: Electricity Security and Affordability Act
This bill would prohibit EPA from requiring new coal plants to use carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions until the technology has been commercially deployed across the United States. Sponsor: Rep. Ed Whitfield (R-KY) (introduced 1/9/2014). Action: 3/6/2014 Passed in the House 229-183. Related Bill: S.1905.

H.R.3895: EXPAND Act
Of relevance, this bill would amend the Clean Air Act to exclude greenhouse gases from the definition of an “air pollutant” and would allow owners and operators of gas and oil facilities to report greenhouse gas emissions from sub-basins. Sponsor: Rep. Jeff Duncan (R-SC) (introduced 1/16/2014).

H.R.4286: American Energy Renaissance Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that EPA exceeded its regulatory authority by promulgating greenhouse gas regulations, and would amend the Clean Air Act to exclude greenhouse gases from the definition of an “air pollutant,” and would repeal the current rulemaking for carbon pollution standards for power plants. Sponsor: Rep. Jim Bridenstine (R-OK) (introduced 3/24/2014). Related Bills: S.2170.

H.R.4304: Jumpstarting Opportunities with Bold Solutions Act
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that the Department of State found that incremental life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Keystone XL project are estimated in the range of 0.07 to 0.83 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent with the upper end of this range representing twelve one-thousandths of one percent of the 6,702 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2011. This bill would: amend the Clean Air Act to exclude greenhouse gases from the definition of an “air pollutant”; repeal the requirement that federal agencies procure alternative fuels that have lower lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum sources; finds that a carbon tax would be detrimental to American families and businesses and is not in the best interest of the United States; and would prohibit EPA from using the social cost of carbon in any energy-related regulations. Sponsor: Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA) (introduced 3/26/2014).

H.J.Res.64: Disapproving a rule submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units"
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV) (introduced 9/25/2013).H.CON.RES.57: Expressing the opposition of the Congress to the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed rule establishing new source performance standards to limit greenhouse gas emissions from new power plants.
Refer to the title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV) (introduced 9/20/2013).

H.CON.RES.59: Expressing the sense of Congress that the Environmental Protection Agency should hold public listening sessions on regulations targeting carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants in those States most directly impacted by the potential regulations.
Refer to the title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) (introduced 10/8/2013).

H.RES.497: Providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 3826) to provide direction to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency regarding the establishment of standards for emissions of any greenhouse gas from fossil fuel-fired electric utility generating units, and for other purposes, and providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 4118) to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to delay the implementation of the penalty for failure to comply with the individual health insurance mandate.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) (introduced 3/4/2014). Action: 3/5/2014 Passed in the House 228-182.

H.AMDT.447: Would amend H.R.1582. This amendment would prohibit EPA from using the social cost of carbon in any energy-related regulations established to cost more than $1 billion until Congress authorizes such use. Sponsor: Rep. Tim Murphy (R-PA). Action: Agreed by recorded vote 234-178.

H.AMDT.583: Would amend H.R.3826. This amendment would delay the bill from taking effect until the Administrator of the Energy and Information Administration certified that another federal program will reduce carbon dioxide emissions in at least equivalent quantities, with similar timing and from the same sources, as a program under Sec. 111 of the Clean Air Act. Sponsor: Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA). Action: Failed in House, 178-231.

H.AMDT.585: Would amend H.R.2641. This amendment would not allow agencies to use the social cost of carbon from the “Technical Support Document: Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866” from May 2013 or November 2013. Sponsor: Rep. David McKinley (R-WV). Action: Passed in the House 222-188.

S.17: Energy Production and Project Delivery Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit the head of any federal agency from implementing or enforcing any regulations, proposals, or actions establishing any carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions reductions until the Administrator, the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, and the Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that the People's Republic of China, India, and the Russian Federation have proposed, implemented, and enforced measures requiring substantially similar reductions. It also would amend the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to prohibit consideration of the impact of greenhouse gas on any species of fish or wildlife or plant for any purpose in the implementation of the ESA. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 2/27/2013).

S.107: A bill to prohibit the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States until China, India, and Russia implement similar reductions.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/23/2013).

S. 163: A bill to prohibit any regulation regarding carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions reduction in the United States until China, India, and Russia implement similar reductions.
Refer to title for summary. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 1/28/2013).

S.1324: National Energy Tax Repeal Act
This bill would prohibit EPA greenhouse gas regulations resulting from the Presidential Memorandum on Power Sector Carbon Pollutions Standards. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 7/18/2013).

S.1401: Domestic Energy and Jobs Act
This bill would require the development of a plan to increase oil and gas explorations, development, and production on federal land. Of particular relevance, the president would be required to establish a Transportation Fuels Regulatory Committee to produce a report that analyzes the cumulative impacts of EPA greenhouse gas regulations and other related regulations. EPA would be prohibited from finalizing any greenhouse gas regulations until at least 180 days after the report is submitted to Congress. Sponsor: Sen. John Hoeven (R-ND) (introduced 7/31/2013).

S.1514: Saving Coal Jobs Act of 2013
This bill would prohibit greenhouse gas regulations of the power sector unless explicitly authorized by Congress. Sponsor: Sen. Mitch McConnell (D-KY) (introduced 9/17/2013).

S.1536: Agency PAYGO Act of 2013
This bill would require EPA, when proposing a rule to limit greenhouse gas emissions, to include an offset from available funds for projected increased costs to other federal agencies resulting from the proposed rule. EPA would Sponsor: Sen. Jeff Flake (R-AZ) (introduced 9/23/2013).

S.1905: Electricity Security and Affordability Act
This bill would prohibit EPA from requiring new coal plants to use carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions until the technology has been commercially deployed across the United States. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 1/9/2014). Related Bill: H.R.3826.

S.2161: EPA Employment Impact Analysis Act
This bill would prohibit EPA from issuing any rule under the Clean Air Act – including greenhouse gas regulations of the power sector – until the EPA Administrator completes an economy-wide analysis capturing the costs and cascading effects of implementing said rules, and establish a process to continually evaluate the impacts on employment. Sponsor: Sen. James Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 3/26/2014).

S.2170: American Energy Renaissance Act of 2014
Of relevance, this bill articulates a congressional finding that EPA exceeded its regulatory authority by promulgating greenhouse gas regulations. This bill would amend the Clean Air Act to exclude greenhouse gases from the definition of an “air pollutant” and would repeal the current rulemaking for carbon pollution standards for power plants. Sponsor: Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) (introduced 3/27/2014). Related Bills: H.R.4286.

S.J.Res.30: A joint resolution to disapprove a rule of the Environmental Protection Agency relating to greenhouse gas emissions from electric utility generating units.
See title for summary. This bill would allow for a congressional review of EPA's greenhouse gas standard for new power plants. Past congressional reviews have occurred after a regulation is finalized. Through the introduction of this bill, Sen. McConnell makes two arguments for congressional review of this proposed regulation. First, the Congressional Review Act doesn’t place limitation for Congress to review only finalized rules. Secondly, a quirk in the Clean Air Act has the proposed rule carrying the full effect of a finalized rule and thus should be treated as such. It remains to be seen whether a congressional review could be brought up for this proposed rule. If allowed, the Senate would have 60 days from the date of introduction to vote on this disapproval measure. The bill must be voted on as is and cannot be filibustered, and would need a simple-majority to pass. (Assuming Republicans voted along party lines, six Democrats would need to break ranks to form a simple majority.) If this bill passes the Senate, it’s likely to pass the Republican-controlled House. Since EPA greenhouse gas regulations are the main pillar of the president’s Climate Action Plan, the President will most likely veto this bill if it makes it to his desk. Congress can over-ride the president’s veto with a two-thirds majority in both chambers. Sponsor: Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-KY) (introduced 1/16/2014).

S.AMDT.184: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would not subject United States’ exports that produce greenhouse gases outside of the United States to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. Sponsor: Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) (introduced 3/22/2013). Action: Agreed to in the Senate on 3/23/2013 by voice vote.

S.AMDT.359: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would prohibit funding for and essentially block the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gases for the purpose of addressing climate change. Sponsor: Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-OK) (introduced 3/21/2013). Action: Failed in the Senate 47-52

S.AMDT.457: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a point of order against legislation relating to the regulation of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide emissions, until the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Energy Information Administration, and Secretary of Commerce certify in writing that each of China, India, and Russia have proposed, implemented, and enforced measures requiring greenhouse gas, including carbon dioxide, emission reductions that are substantially similar to carbon dioxide emissions reductions proposed for the United States. Sponsor: Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.458: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would create a point of order against legislation that would establish an unrealistic or unattainable standard for carbon dioxide emissions from new coal-fired electricity-generating units. Sponsor: Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) (introduced 3/21/2013).

S.AMDT.706: Would amend S.CON.RES.8. This amendment would ensure that carbon emission standards be cost effective, based on the best available science and benefit low-income and middle-class families. Sponsor: Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD) (introduced 3/22/2013).

National Flood Insurance Program

H.R.41: To temporarily increase the borrowing authority of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program
This bill, also known as the Hurricane Sandy Relief bill, provides a portion of the disaster relief requested – a $9.7 billion increase in borrowing authority for the National Flood Insurance Program. Sponsor: Rep. Scott Garrett (R-NJ). Action: 1/4/2013: passed in the House 354-67. 1/4/2013: passed in the Senate 1/6/2013: Signed by President and became Public Law No: 113-001.

H.R.3370: Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2013
This bill would reverse many of the provisions of the Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. Of relevance, this bill would prohibit the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) from: increasing flood insurance premiums to no more than 18 percent a year, and FEMA limit the cost of a flood insurance policy to 1 percent of a home’s total coverage. The bill also would repeal the requirement that new policies and policies from recently sold properties reflect full risk rates. This means that for older buildings, subsidized policies can now be passed on from one homeowner to the next and new subsidized NFIP policies can be purchased. In addition, the bill would reinstate grandfathering, where structures subject to increasing flood risk and mapped into a higher flood risk zone would continue to pay the previous, lower premium rate. Sponsor: Rep. Michael Grimm (R-NY). Action: 3/4/2013: passed in the House 306-91. 3/13/2014: passed in the Senate 72-22; 3/21/2014: signed by President and became Public Law No: 113-89.

S.1926: A bill to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012 and to reform the National Association of Registered Agents and Brokers, and for other purposes
Of relevance, this bill would delay for up to four years the premium increases that would have resulted next year from FEMA updating its flood maps. Sponsor: Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ). Action: 1/30/2014: passed in the Senate 67-32.

Carbon Pollution Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Electric power generation is responsible for about 40 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions – making it the largest single source.

Reducing power sector emissions is a key part of President Obama’s Climate Action Plan, which aims to reduce overall U.S. greenhouse gas emissions 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. His June 2013 presidential memorandum directed EPA to set standards for both new and existing plants.

In September 2013, EPA released a “Carbon Pollution Standard for New Power Plants,” replacing a March 2012 proposal. EPA proposed standards for coal- and natural gas-fired plants (measured as tons of greenhouse gas emissions per megawatt-hour of elec­tricity produced) that states would apply at each regulated plant.

By June 2014, EPA aims to propose limits to carbon emissions from existing power plants, which fall under a different section of the Clean Air Act that allows more flexibility. EPA will establish “guidelines” that states must follow in developing their own implementation plans. This could allow EPA to give states broad discretion in establishing their programs.

Explore the issues and options involved in EPA regulation of carbon pollution from power plants through the following resources.

C2ES Resources

External Resources

 

Why we shouldn’t throw out flood insurance reform

It’s not surprising that homeowners in flood-prone areas are asking their representatives in Congress to protect them from higher flood insurance bills.

Here’s the question. Who is going to protect them from higher floods?

Congress in 2012 did the right thing in fixing a broken flood insurance system that has fallen $24 billion in debt, largely because the price of flood insurance hasn’t for many years matched the risk of a flood. Now, both the House and Senate have passed bills that would undo many of these reforms.

Congress should find a way to address both the immediate and long-term concerns of their constituents, and the rest of the nation. We can’t ignore the plight of families facing hefty insurance increases, and we must ensure that the process of making flood insurance reflect flood risk is fair and transparent. But we also can’t ignore the increasing costs and risks associated with growing coastal development in an era of rising seas and heavier precipitation.

Among the problems with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that we outlined in a C2ES brief:

Extreme Weather and Resilience: An Ounce of Prevention

A recent Senate hearing highlighted some of the progress U.S. communities are making, and the major challenges they face, in better coping with costly extreme weather events — including those, such as heat waves and coastal flooding, whose risks are heightened by climate change.

Sen. Tom Carper, chairman of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, noted that the “frequency and intensity of these extreme weather events are costing our country a lot - not just in lives impacted – but in economic costs, as well.” Nearly 130 weather-related events in 2013 caused more than $20 billion in losses in the United States.

Extreme weather is costly, not only to federal, state, and local governments, but also to businesses and individuals.

Much of the Senate testimony echoed key findings in our report, “Weathering the Storm, Building Business Resilience to Climate Change.”  Three key points made at the hearing were:

2014 State of the Union Resources

In his fifth State of the Union address, President Barack Obama again put the issue of climate change before Congress and the American public, and reaffirmed his determination to use the powers of the presidency to strengthen America’s response.

  • Read our views on the State of the Climate.
  • Read Eileen Claussen's statement on the president's 2014 State of the Union address.
  • Read Manik Roy's blog post, exploring three key statemenst from the president's address.

From President Obama's remarks, as delivered:

Now, one of the biggest factors in bringing more jobs back is our commitment to American energy. The all-of-the-above energy strategy I announced a few years ago is working, and today, America is closer to energy independence than we’ve been in decades.

One of the reasons why is natural gas – if extracted safely, it’s the bridge fuel that can power our economy with less of the carbon pollution that causes climate change. Businesses plan to invest almost $100 billion in new factories that use natural gas. I’ll cut red tape to help states get those factories built, and this Congress can help by putting people to work building fueling stations that shift more cars and trucks from foreign oil to American natural gas. My administration will keep working with the industry to sustain production and job growth while strengthening protection of our air, our water, and our communities. And while we’re at it, I’ll use my authority to protect more of our pristine federal lands for future generations.

It’s not just oil and natural gas production that’s booming; we’re becoming a global leader in solar, too. Every four minutes, another American home or business goes solar; every panel pounded into place by a worker whose job can’t be outsourced. Let’s continue that progress with a smarter tax policy that stops giving $4 billion a year to fossil fuel industries that don’t need it, so that we can invest more in fuels of the future that do.

And even as we’ve increased energy production, we’ve partnered with businesses, builders, and local communities to reduce the energy we consume. When we rescued our automakers, for example, we worked with them to set higher fuel efficiency standards for our cars. In the coming months, I’ll build on that success by setting new standards for our trucks, so we can keep driving down oil imports and what we pay at the pump.

Taken together, our energy policy is creating jobs and leading to a cleaner, safer planet. Over the past eight years, the United States has reduced our total carbon pollution more than any other nation on Earth. But we have to act with more urgency – because a changing climate is already harming western communities struggling with drought, and coastal cities dealing with floods. That’s why I directed my administration to work with states, utilities, and others to set new standards on the amount of carbon pollution our power plants are allowed to dump into the air. The shift to a cleaner energy economy won’t happen overnight, and it will require tough choices along the way. But the debate is settled. Climate change is a fact. And when our children’s children look us in the eye and ask if we did all we could to leave them a safer, more stable world, with new sources of energy, I want us to be able to say yes, we did.

C2ES has assembled a list of resources on federal climate and energy issues.

Climate Change Science

The draft National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Working Group 1 report, both released in 2013, affirm previous scientific findings that human-induced climate change is underway and that avoiding the worst consequences will require significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

For more information, see:

Extreme Weather

A single weather event says nothing about climate change. But weather patterns are shifting as the planet warms. Average global temperatures are higher than they were 30, 50, or 100 years ago. Climate scientists tell us to expect more frequent and intense heat waves, more severe droughts in some regions, more expansive wildfires, and more intense downpours.

For more information, see:

Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed standards for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from new power plants and is working on rules for existing power plants, which are responsible for 40 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.

For more information, see:

Climate Resilience

As part of the Climate Action Plan, federal agencies are supporting local investments in climate resilience and have convened a task force of state, local and tribal officials to advise on key actions the federal government can take to help strengthen communities against future extreme weather and other climate impacts.

For more information, see:

Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards

New standards will nearly double the fuel economy of new cars and light trucks by 2025, while lowering their carbon emissions by 40 percent. These measures represent the largest federal step ever aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EPA has started technical work on fuel economy standards for heavy-duty vehicles starting in model year 2018.

For more information, see:

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is the second-fastest growing energy source behind natural gas. For 2012, renewable energy was responsible for 12.2 percent of net U.S. electricity generation with hydroelectric generation contributing 6.8 percent and wind generation responsible for 3.5 percent.

For more information, see:

Natural Gas

New drilling technologies such as hydraulic fracturing (sometimes called fracking) have vastly increased the amount of recoverable natural gas in the United States and elsewhere. These advances are projected to significantly alter energy economics and trends, and open new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

For more information, see:

Coal

While some power plants are switching to natural gas, coal remains a major source of energy for U.S. electricity generation. Coal has the highest carbon content of all fossil fuels, and coal accounts for about 40 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon capture-and-storage technologies offer the potential to sequester emissions from coal combustion.

For more information, see:

Clean Energy Support

All sources of energy – fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable energy – receive some form of federal support, whether as a grant, loan, loan guarantee or tax credit, and whether for research, development, demonstration or deployment. Nuclear, hydro, wind, biomass, geothermal and solar produce zero greenhouse gas emissions.

For more information, see:

Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil

Net imports of oil peaked in 2005, and since then have declined from 60 percent to about 40 percent of total U.S. consumption. Contributing factors include reduced consumption due to vehicle fuel economy standards and renewable fuels, and increased domestic production.

For more information, see:

Energy Efficiency

Increasing energy efficiency can save consumers money, reduce energy consumption and reduce greenhouse emissions. The president’s Climate Action Plan sets a goal of doubling energy productivity by 2030 relative to 2010 levels.

For more information, see:

Leading by Example

In his climate plan, the president set a goal for the federal government to consume 20 percent of its electricity from renewable energy sources by 2020—more than double the current goal of 7.5 percent.

For more information, see:

International Climate Change Leadership

Climate change is a global challenge that requires a global solution. An effective strategy will require commitments and actions by all the major emitters. In addition to working toward a 2015 international climate agreement, the president has called for multilateral and bilateral efforts with China, India and other emitting countries.

For more information, see:

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