The gap between available transportation funding and what’s needed has been growing nationwide. (See C2ES’s brief on federal transportation reauthorization program for more information.)
States must balance measures to reduce transportation’s effects on the environment, through for example, programs such as electric vehicle incentives, with the need to provide transportation infrastructure funding. Most of this funding comes from user fees including motor fuels taxes. Most of this funding comes from user fees including motor fuels taxes.
Available evidence suggests electric vehicles will have a very small effect on transportation funding in the near term. As a result, the PEV Dialogue Group recommends that states enact revenue collection plans before electric vehicle adoption noticeably affects revenues, when technically feasible, and without stunting the growth of the electric vehicle market.
This map documents activity by states to recover transportation infrastructure revenue from electric vehicles. Much of the data comes from the Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuel Data Center.
- See the PEV Action Tool for more information about activities by state transportation departments to promote electric vehicles and fund transportation infrastructure.
- PEV Integration with Electrical Grid: Policies to inform electric utilities about electric vehicle purchases, statewide building code policies related to electric vehicles, and vehicle-to-grid pilot projects.
- PEV Electricity Pricing by Time-Of-Use (TOU): Electric utilities offering pricing rates attractive to electric vehicles.
- Who Can Own/Operate a Charging Station: State regulations about the ownership and operation of electric vehicle charging stations.
Last updated: February 11, 2014
A quick glance around this week’s Washington Auto Show might make you wonder if you’ve stepped into the past, with large trucks, SUVs, and sports cars getting all the attention. But look under the hood and you can see the auto industry’s more climate-friendly future.
The cars and trucks of 2014 are lighter, more aerodynamic, and powered by increasingly efficient engines. A key impetus for these improvements is tougher federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards. The auto show provides evidence that the industry is working to meet these ambitious standards, and that we can significantly reduce emissions without compromising consumer choice.
One way to improve fuel economy is to make the vehicle lighter. That’s exactly what Ford Motor Company did to the best-selling vehicle in the United States: the F-150. All 2015 Ford F-150s will have an aluminum body and truck bed – shedding 700 pounds while still being able to tow and haul more than the previous generation. That could boost its gas mileage from 20 mpg on the highway for the 2014 model to 30 mpg.
Automakers have increasingly substituted strong, lightweight aluminum for steel in hoods, wheels and other components. The F-150 and Tesla’s aluminum-body Model S show they’re going beyond that.
Another way to increase gas mileage is to improve an engine’s ability to convert fuel (potential energy) to work (kinetic energy). General Motors is making the Corvette Sting Ray for the first time 1976, and the new version is beautiful and efficient. The 2015 Sting Ray is the quickest, most powerful, and most efficient Corvette ever made. The 7-speed V-8 Sting Ray gets up to 29 mpg on the highway. That’s about twice the fuel economy of the ’67 Sting Ray my dad drove when I was a kid.
A Primer on Federal Surface Transportation Reauthorization and the Highway Trust Fund
by Nick Nigro and Cindy Burbank
A recent "60 Minutes" story highlighted the demise of a few high-profile clean-tech companies that received federal funding. The story neglected to report why clean technology is vital to the future of our economy and environment in the first place, and therefore why it makes sense for the government to promote the development of wind and solar energy, electric vehicles, and other clean tech. Simply put, the goal is to transform our economy from one based on fossil fuels that emit heat-trapping gases to one based on clean energy that won't contribute to global climate change.
Private finance is playing a critical role in accelerating the deployment of clean energy technologies that will reduce the impacts of our energy use on the global climate. Can some of these innovative financing tools – or new tools – also help spur alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and fueling infrastructure?
That’s a question we have set out to answer in a new initiative with the National Association of State Energy Officials. As a first step, we’ve explored some of the key barriers in the AFV market that private investment could help address.
Eight states have given a big boost to zero emission vehicles by agreeing to support putting 3.3 million on the road by 2025. California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont together account for about a quarter of the auto market, so their commitment is significant.
To reach their goal, these states will need to learn what policies and actions are most effective at driving sales of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), starting with electric cars.
Two early lessons are evident from our ongoing work in this area: Stakeholder coordination is critical, and creative policy solutions are needed. The memorandum of understanding the governors signed last week will foster an environment for both.
In the closing days of September, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a series of bills advancing the state’s clean vehicle initiatives. One law, AB 8, extends funding for many of the state’s vehicle-efficiency programs and mandates increased deployment of hydrogen fueling stations. Additionally, the Governor signed two bills—AB 1092 and SB 454—that each provide for greater, more efficient access to electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. Governor Brown also signed SB 359 and SB 459, which increase funding to rebate programs for low-emission vehicle purchases and upgrades, as well as rebates for early vehicle retirements. Finally, the governor signed AB 266 and SB 286, extending the state’s program to issue special High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) stickers to owners of plug-in hybrids and zero-emissions vehicles (ZEVs).
Extension of Clean Vehicle Programs
AB 8 clears the way for 10-year extensions of several clean vehicle rebates enacted by AB 118 in 2007, including the Air Quality Improvement Program and the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program. The law enables these extensions to clean vehicle programs by authorizing increases to vehicle registration fees and surcharges into 2024. The law further authorizes the California Energy Commission to supersede the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in managing the deployment of 100 new hydrogen-fueling stations over the next 10 years using $20 million annually. The law also provides a new source of funding for the Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program by establishing a new $0.75 surcharge on tire purchases, which is projected to raise $34 million over the next 10years.
Under SB 359, CARB will receive an additional $48 million in 2014 to continue funding monetary incentives administered through the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project and the Enhanced Fleet Modernization Program (EFMP). The new law focuses on voluntary trade-ins of high-polluting vehicles by supplying $1,000 rebates to EFMP participants, and $1,500 rebates to EFMP participants with a household income at or below 225 percent of the federal poverty level. SB 459 requires CARB to update EFMP guidelines by June 30, 2015. In doing so, CARB is authorized to increase the value of early vehicle retirement and replacement rebates for low-income participants beyond existing limits of $1,500 and $2,500, respectively.
Development of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
California’s EV charging infrastructure got a boost from AB 1092 and SB 454. Under AB 1092, the California Building Standards Commission assumes responsibility for mandating the installation of EV charging infrastructure in parking spaces of multifamily and nonresidential buildings in the next California Building Standards Code, slated for adoption in 2014. SB 454 broadens access to EV charging stations by requiring open access to stations without purchasing a subscription or obtaining a membership to an association. Further, SB 454 requires EV charging station operators to accept payment from credit cards or mobile-based payment applications. Both laws fulfill Governor Brown’s Executive Order on March 23, 2013 to facilitate the deployment of 1.5 million ZEVs on the road by 2025.
HOV Sticker Programs
SB 286 extends the state’s HOV sticker program for plug-in hybrid vehicles and ZEVs through 2019. Under SB 286, the HOV sticker program will issue an additional 40,000 “green stickers” to those applicants operating partial-ZEVs, and issue an unlimited amount of “white stickers” to applicants operating vehicles that meet California super ultra-low emission vehicle standard, as well as the national inherently low-emission vehicle (ILEV) evaporative emission standard.
This map contains state laws and regulations that affect electric vehicles. The policies include the following:
- Vehicle Acquisition: Mandates for state or other types of fleets to acquire electric vehicles. This primarily affects state fleets.
- Preferred Access: State requirements to provide access to High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes or designated parking for electric vehicles.
- Financial Incentives: Tax credits, rebates, grants, inspection exemption, and vehicle-to-grid energy credits.
- Infrastructure Requirement: State requirements to provide electric vehicle charging infrastructure.
Note that the policies highlighted here target electric vehicles. C2ES has a number of additional maps on policies and activities to promote electric vehicles as part of its PEV Dialogue Initiative available here.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. The website contains a database for federal and state incentives and laws.