Daniel Bodansky

Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change

Beyond Kyoto Report Cover


Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change

Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
December 2003

The report is a compilation of six "think pieces" on core issues in developing an effective international response to global climate change. Working drafts of the papers were the focus of workshops in China, Germany, and Mexico. More than 100 people from nearly three dozen developed and developing countries have contributed as authors, reviewers, or workshop participants.

Press Release

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Download the Overview (pdf)

Report Topics and Authors:

A Long-Term Target: Framing the Climate Effort (pdf)
Jonathan Pershing and Fernando Tudela

Climate Commitments: Assessing the Options (pdf)
Daniel Bodansky

Equity and Climate: In Principle and Practice (pdf)
John Ashton and Xueman Wang

Addressing Cost: The Political Economy of Climate Change (pdf)
Joseph E. Aldy, Richard Baron, and Laurence Tubiana

Development and Climate: Engaging Developing Countries (pdf)
Tom Heller and P.R. Shukla

Trade and Climate: Potential Conflict and Synergies (pdf)
Steve Charnovitz

Recent Remarks by Elliot Diringer (June 2004)

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Daniel Bodansky
Elliot Diringer
Fernando Tudela
John Ashton
Jonathan Pershing
Joseph E. Aldy
Laurence Tubiana
P.R. Shukla
Richard Baron
Steve Charnovitz
Thomas C. Heller
Xueman Wang
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Linking U.S. and International Climate Change Strategies

This working paper identifies potential scenarios for the linkage of U.S. and international climate strategies; describes how emerging national and international emissions trading regimes will shape the context within which such linkages could take place; and examines issues that must be considered in the design of a U.S. climate strategy to ensure its compatibility with an international regime.

Among the key findings:

The United States could, as a legal matter, decide to recognize Kyoto permits for purposes of compliance with U.S. emission reduction targets without needing the permission of the Kyoto Protocol parties (for example, via an amendment) and even if the two systems were not fully compatible.

Sales of non-Kyoto emissions permits to the Kyoto system would require an amendment to the Protocol, which parties would be unlikely to consider unless they believed that the U.S. and Kyoto trading systems were generally compatible.

In the long term, the more compatible U.S. and international climate policies are, the easier it will be to achieve convergence both politically and legally. Conversely, given the significant inertia in political and economic systems, the further U.S. and international climate policies travel down divergent roads, the more difficult it will be to bring them back together again in the future.

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by: Daniel Bodansky, University of Washington

Daniel Bodansky
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Implications for U.S. Companies of Kyoto's Entry into Force without the United States

This working paper examines some of the potential implications for U.S. business of the Kyoto Protocol's entry into force – in particular, the effects of the U.S. decision to stay out of the Protocol.

The Bonn and Marrakech meetings adopted generally sound rules regarding the Kyoto mechanisms. However, the implications for U.S. business will depend as much or more on the domestic policies and measures of Annex B parties1 as on the Kyoto rules themselves. The Kyoto rules merely establish the general framework within which national implementation will take place. Although bad Kyoto rules might have precluded efficient implementation of the Protocol, the Bonn and Marrakech rules do not ensure efficiency, since this will depend on the extent to which governments choose to utilize the Kyoto mechanisms to achieve their targets.

The implications of Kyoto for U.S. business will also depend significantly on whether the United States decides as a matter of domestic policy to undertake emission reduction requirements, and the stringency of any such requirements. This paper generally assumes a scenario in which the U.S. does not take significant domestic action to control emissions. In the final section, it considers an alternative scenario involving adoption of strong U.S. domestic measures to reduce emissions.

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by: Daniel Bodansky, University of Washington

Daniel Bodansky
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