The following is a brief overview of transportation solutions undertaken by members of C2ES's Business Environmental Leadership Council (BELC).
For more information on each of these companies efforts to address climate change, please see the Businesses Leading The Way section of this Web site.
Air Products and Chemicals
- Air Products and Chemicals’ distribution fleet is over 50 percent more fuel-efficient than it was three decades ago. Air Products uses sophisticated logistics scheduling software to maximize the amount of product hauled in each load and determine the optimal delivery routes to customers. Air Products fleet managers have recently set new internal miles per gallon targets to increase fleet efficiency using best practices for driving and maintaining vehicles.
- Air Products and Chemicals develops hydrogen infrastructure and fuel-handling technologies to enable the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and is working with the private and public sectors to develop a market for hydrogen fuel.
- Air Products and Chemicals is providing hydrogen production, distribution, and vehicle expertise to collaborations of public, private, and government institutions, and is participating in numerous demonstration projects in North America and Europe on the development of hydrogen fuels, fueling systems, and vehicles. For more information visit, Air Product's Hydrogen Energy Website.
- Air Products is part of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, a unique collaboration of auto manufacturers, energy companies, fuel cell companies, and government agencies. The partnership’s goal is to advance and evaluate new automobile technology that can move the world toward practical and affordable environmental solutions. The organization was formed in April 1999 and placed over 40 fuel cell vehicles—cars and buses—on the road between 2000 and 2003. In addition to facilitating the placement of up to 300 vehicles in fleet demonstrations between 2004 and 2007, partnership members will build demonstration hydrogen fuel stations, act to facilitate a path towards commercialization of hydrogen, and enhance public awareness and support.
Alstom’s Coradia regional train models continue to meet with considerable success with the new generation Coradia Polyvalent, a powerful new addition to the Coradia line that travels at 160 km/h. Alstom’s high performance Coradia Polyvalent engine is light and compact and over 90% of its components are recyclable. In addition, it can capture energy generated during braking and return it to the power grid.
- American Water is working to improve its efficiency of its fleet of cars and trucks and has implemented a "no idle policy" to improve fuel efficiency.
About 5 percent of American Water’s GHG emissions come from its vehicle fleet, which is used to operate and maintain its water and wastewater systems. American Water continues to work with public utility commissions in the states in which it operates to obtain approval for the increased purchase of high-efficiency, hybrid and electric vehicles.
- BP is part of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, a unique collaboration of auto manufacturers, energy companies, fuel cell companies, and government agencies. The partnership’s goal is to advance and evaluate new automobile technology that can move the world toward practical and affordable environmental solutions. The organization was formed in April 1999 and placed over 40 fuel cell vehicles—cars and buses—on the road between 2000 and 2003. In addition to facilitating the placement of up to 300 vehicles in fleet demonstrations between 2004 and 2007, partnership members will build demonstration hydrogen fuel stations, act to facilitate a path towards commercialization of hydrogen, and enhance public awareness and support.
- BP is taking practical steps to bring hydrogen fuel and fuelling facilities into cities around the world as demonstration projects involving buses and cars with the aim to familiarise commerce and the public with hydrogen as the ultimate clean fuel of tomorrow. BP sees their business role as a supplier of hydrogen fuel and a partner in demonstrating the viability of fuel cells in mobile and stationary applications. This strategy makes use of BP’s core skills in fuel production, storage and distribution.
- BP’s Global Choice program allows Australian business customers to offset the greenhouse gas emissions from their fuel consumption. Participation in the program is free for companies purchasing BP Ultimate or bp autogas and only 1-2 cents per liter to offset regular unleaded or diesel fuels. The offsets are independently audited and certified by the Australian Federal Government’s Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO). Since November 2001, over 6,500 customers have offset 626,095 tonnes of greenhouse gases.
- Cummins joined the U.S. government and other industry partners in the Twenty-First Century Truck Initiative, with the goal of developing commercially viable truck and propulsion system technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions from medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses.
- Cummins sold over 2000 Compressed Natural Gas engines to the Beijing Public Transportation Corporation for the city bus fleet. These engines exceed Euro II emissions standards.
- Cummins has partnered with Lockheed Martin Control Systems and Orion Bus to produce the diesel engine and soot filter for Lockheed’s hybrid electric drive system for 125 Orion VII hybrid buses, to be purchased by the New York City Metropolitan Transit Authority.
- Daimler seeks early compliance with the Euro 6 standard for passenger cars by 50 percent of all Mercedes-Benz and smart new vehicles in Europe by the end of 2014.
- Daimler will introduce EEV engines for light commercial vehicles in all van production series by the end of 2013, which will lead to a reduction in GHG emitted.
Delta Air Lines, Inc.
- In 2010, Delta installed winglets on twenty-one 737-800s, fifteen 757-200s and fourteen 767-300ERs (part of a long-term program to save 50 million gallons per year)
- Delta increased the utilization of single-engine taxi procedures, resulting in 5 percent additional savings from the 30 million gallons per year program
- Delta enhanced arrival sequencing software in Atlanta to take into account gate availability, saving an additional 2.1 million gallons a year
- Delta increased the number of aircraft routing options for international flights, saving 1.6 million gallons per year; expanding the engine wash program to include the additional fleets, saving 2.5 million gallons per year.
- Delta revising descent procedures for uncongested airports, saving 1.3 million gallons per year.
- Dominion's home state of Virginia is a very active emerging market for electric vehicles (EVs) and is laying the groundwork for their development and use. The EV market has the potential to grow to 86,000 vehicles, or 5 percent of all vehicle sales in Virginia by 2020.
- Dominion Virginia Power currently has three Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in its service fleet. PHEVs contribute to lowering our carbon footprint, cut fuel use and test the value of this clean technology in densely populated Northern Virginia.
- Two hybrid aerial lift trucks are in service in Northern Virginia, where they are used to work on power lines. Tests have produced fuel savings of up to 60 percent relative to their diesel-powered counterparts. In addition to the environmental benefits, the hybrid vehicle technology offers potentially lower maintenance costs, less noise at service calls, and healthier work conditions for our line crews.
- Dominion has teamed up with General Motors and eight other utilities to test the Chevrolet Volt Extended Range Electric Vehicle and the supporting charging infrastructure. Dominion installed two charging stations on Interstate 64 in New Kent County, VA, that are available to the public and free of charge.
- In October 2010, Dominion and Ford Motor Company announced plans to coordinate efforts to help prepare Virginia for the operation of EVs. Our two companies are working together to develop consumer outreach and EV educational programs, as well as share information on charging needs and requirements to ensure the power grid can support the necessary electrical demand.
- The collaboration between Ford and Dominion also involves working with state and local governments on the most efficient ways to bring EVs to Virginia. Government support for infrastructure and a simple charging station permitting process are thought to be two key prerequisites for EV acceptance in Virginia and across the country.
- In July 2011, Dominion launched an EV pilot program to collect data on customer adoption of EVs, battery charging patterns and the effects of EV charging on the power grid. It offers two different voluntary time-of-use pricing options to encourage customers to charge their EVs at times when electric demand – and costs – are lower (off-peak).
- Dominion Energy currently employs more than 300 natural gas vehicles (NGVs), primarily light- and medium-duty pickup trucks, at 22 locations in Ohio. The compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling these vehicles displaces the equivalent of 360,000 gallons of gasoline a year. CNG usage in light-duty pickup trucks typically requires 87 percent less gasoline than regular, gasoline-fueled light-duty pickup trucks. Over the past decade, we estimate that our NGV fleet has displaced a total of about 2.4 million gallons of gasoline.
- Dominion began testing B20 biodiesel fuel in our Dominion Virginia Power fleet in 2007. Since then, Dominion has used 4 million gallons of B20 at 32 locations in Virginia and North Carolina. More than 1,000 Dominion service vehicles currently operate on biodiesel fuel every day.
Dow Chemical Company
- Dow Automotive Systems is helping manufacturers reduce vehicle weight – and, in turn, improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental impact.
Duke Energy collaborates with manufacturers of vehicles, batteries and charging stations to promote the long-term adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. It is also a board member of the Electric Drive Transportation Association and helped launch www.GoElectricDrive.com in 2010, which offers information on advancements in electric vehicle technologies, purchase incentives and environmental benefits.
Duke Energy will provide eligible residential customers with electric vehicle charging stations as part of pilot programs in Indiana and the Carolinas. Duke Energy will install charging stations, as well as service the technology for the duration of the programs. When the pilot ends, participants will have the option of purchasing the charging stations at significant savings
Duke Energy has set a goal to only purchase electric and hybrid vehicles by 2020
- Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., a DuPont company, the world's leading developer and supplier of agricultural seeds, operates a significant portion its fleet of farm and transportation equipment on biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel, offsetting CO2 emissions from fossil fuels.
- Biodiesel and Hybrid Vehicle Program
- ComEd continues to be a major voluntary user of B-20 biodiesel blended product, with 2004 consumption surpassing the 2 million gallon mark. For 2004, this consumption level reduced particulate emissions by more than 340 tons and displaced the need to purchase more than 400,000 gallons of petroleum-based diesel. ComEd is recognized as the largest regional consumer of biodiesel and ranks in the top 5 percent of biodiesel consumers nationwide.
- In 2005, Exelon purchased 50 Ford Escape Hybrids, the first production hybrid sport-utility vehicle (SUV). These now comprise about 25 percent of the company’s overall SUV fleet. The combination gasoline and electric Ford Escape operates in electric-only mode when the vehicles travel at low speeds or idle at a stop. As a result, the hybrid Escapes provide an estimated 50 percent improvement in city/highway fuel economy when compared to the conventional Escape.
- In 2004, Exelon also joined the Hybrid Truck Users Forum (HTUF), a project of the U.S. Army and WestStart. The forum coordinated specifications and a request for proposal (RFP) for the prototype of a medium-duty hybrid utility truck. Exelon’s fleet-supply team had the opportunity to drive the prototype, named the Validator, in January 2005. The truck offers specific benefits for the utility business, such as an immediate source of 25 kilowatts (kW) of exportable power that can be supplied to specific customer locations that have lost power, thereby introducing the possibility of reducing the Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI). In 2005, Exelon procured two preproduction hybrid trucks from International Truck and Engine Corporation, one each for PECO and ComEd operations. The combination diesel and electric powered trucks are expected to improve fuel economy up to 60 percent compared to diesel-only fueled trucks. The new hybrid truck will also allow the operator to shut off the diesel engine and operate the bucket on an electric motor for up to two hours before the engine has to come back on to briefly charge the battery. As a result, considerably less fuel is burned and noise is reduced. About two-thirds of the fuel savings result from the engine being shut off at the work site.
- Donated CNG station for airport transit buses
- Partnering with the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program (GPCCP), PECO helped move the Philadelphia International Airport (PIA) one step closer toward procurement of compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses. A recent study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through a GPCCP grant, determined that significant reductions in emissions are possible through adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, most notably CNG fueled vehicles.
- In 2004, the decision was made by PECO to close the CNG station located at the King of Prussia service area on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Declining patronage and increasing operations and maintenance (O&M) expenses were the main drivers. Since the major expense in decommissioning the station was removal and site restoration, PECO offered the station to GPCCP and PIA in hopes that it could be re-commissioned to support an anticipated procurement of CNG transit buses.
- In November, the station was moved from the turnpike service area to a temporary location at PIA, awaiting installation and commissioning at the airport in mid-2005. This move eliminated the O&M expense and demonstrated PECO’s environmental commitment by facilitating future use of this asset in a manner certain to improve air quality at the airport. In addition, PECO made a $20,000 cash gift to GPCCP for funding the relocation and site restoration
- Throughout GM's vehicle brands, it has 13 vehicle models that achieve at least a 30 mpg highway rating or higher for the 2010 model year. GM has made its vehicles more efficient through the use of a variety of technologies such as Active Fuel Management, six-speed transmissions, variable valve timing, and direct injection. It also offers five hybrid vehicles – Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Silverado, GMC Yukon, GMC Sierra and Cadillac Escalade.
- In 2004, IBM was ranked in the top twenty FORTUNE 500 companies participating in the public-private sector voluntary program Best Workplaces for Commuters®. Best Workplaces for Commuters® was established by the DOT and EPA to publicly recognize employers whose commuter benefits address parking, congestion, and environmental impacts associated with driving-alone commuting. Commuter programs particularly telecommuting, not only benefit the environment by reducing traffic congestion, but also benefit IBM employees by providing them with greater flexibility, and benefit the company by enhancing the productivity of its work force. IBM has currently more than 20,000 employees participating in telework arrangements in the U.S. Many IBM locations around the country also encourage employees to take public transportation, carpool, vanpool, use bikes, etc. in order to reduce traffic congestion and its resulting air pollution. At these multiple locations, IBM provides commuter assistance programs which provide employees with guidance on using alternative modes of transportation and Emergency Ride Home programs. Some of these IBM locations provide employees with various benefits including but not limited to transit subsidies, discounted transit passes, internal carpool ride-matching service, access to onsite amenities such as cafeterias, credit unions, ATM's, medical center, commuter information kiosks, common telework stations, bike racks, showers, etc.
- In 2004, Intel was ranked number one among FORTUNE 500 participating companies in the public-private sector voluntary program Best Workplaces for CommutersSM. Best Workplaces for Commuterssm was established by the DOT and EPA to publicly recognize employers whose commuter benefits address parking, congestion, and environmental impacts associated with driving-alone commuting. In 2003, 44 percent of Intel’s 48,600-plus U.S.-based employees were able to take advantage of telecommute options, while other staffers participated in flextime, compressed workweeks, part-time hours, and job-share programs. Intel offers commuter benefits to more than 90 percent of its work force including a universal vanpool and transit subsidy program and Emergency Ride Home services. In addition, Intel provides on-site fitness centers, food cafes, dry cleaning, and photo development for its employees at major work sites.
PowerFrame is our patented, precision-stamped grid technology in lead-acid batteries. Its optimized grid design and sturdy outer frame delivers significantly improved durability, performance and reliability and extends the battery’s lifecycle. The PowerFrame manufacturing process utilizes 20 percent less energy, emits 20 percent fewer greenhouse gases and is virtually waste-free because all excess stamping materials are recycled. The PowerFrame grid technology process is used at all Johnson Controls manufacturing sites in the United States and is being implemented at the company’s battery production facilities in Mexico and Europe.
Johnson Controls has developed seating frames that are 30 percent lighter than current frames and help reduce overall vehicle weight. This new frame will be
available to Japanese car makers for production in 2012.
Johnson Controls. through its joint venture, Johnson Controls-Saft-Saft, was the first to market lithium-ion batteries for production automobiles, supplying the Mercedes S-Class and BMW 7 Series hybrid vehicles. It established the first U.S. automotive lithium-ion battery production facility in Holland, Michigan, in 2010. Battery pack assembly began at this facility this year, with cell production to begin in 2011. The plant supports production contracts with Ford, Daimler, BMW and Azure Dynamics.
NextEra Energy, Inc.
- Florida Power & Light, a subsidiary of NextEra Energy, Inc. has updated its vehicle fleet with hybrid-electric and biodiesel vehicles. It converted one-third of its 2,400 company cars to hybrids by the end of 2010.
In 2010, NRG launched eVgo, the nation’s first comprehensive, privately funded electric vehicle charging ecosystem. Starting in Houston and expanding to Dallas-Fort Worth and additional markets, eVgo delivers an unlimited miles “home-and-away” charging service for a low monthly fee, making EV ownership easier and more affordable. This will help pave the way to an electric vehicle revolution that has the potential to not only break America’s addiction to foreign oil, but also significantly reduce greenhouse gases and other harmful air emissions by fueling vehicles with lower emission electricity instead of gasoline.
- PG&E Corporation began its Clean Air Transportation program in 1988 and currently has more than 650 natural gas vehicles in its fleet.
- PG&E is conducting a PEV (Plug-in Electric Vehicle) "smart charging" pilot project with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), technology companies and automakers to evaluate load management technologies that will minimize the impacts to the grid from charging electric vehicles.
- PG&E is helping to develop the underlying codes and standards for electric vehicles, working with national and international organizations to ensure that electric vehicles charge and communicate in similar ways. This will reduce costs for utilities, car companies and, ultimately, consumers. For example, as chair of EPRI's National Infrastructure Working Council, PG&E was instrumental in securing agreement across the electric vehicle industry to adopt the J1772 physical plug standard. This standard means that all electric cars will have the same plug for charging vehicle batteries.
- Last year, PG&E added the nation’s first all-electric bucket truck to the fleet. The Smith Electric Vehicle joins the PHEV and hybrid diesel-electric bucket trucks already in service. PG&E also continued to evaluate and test numerous electric passenger vehicles, including the Mitsubishi i-Miev and AC Propulsion's eBox, and have incorporated Ford Escape PHEVs and two Toyota Prius PHEVs into PG&E’s fleet.
- PG&E's fleet includes more than 1,000 compressed natural gas (CNG) passenger cars, pickups, vans and trucks. The company also maintain a network of 35 CNG and one liquefied natural gas (LNG) stations, most of which are open to the public.
PG&E has partnered with General Motors to take delivery of more than 100 dual-mode hybrid pickup trucks, joining more than 50 Ford Escape hybrids already in the fleet. PG&E will also add 10 Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicles once they are available. To support these new vehicles, PG&E has installed more than 20 new electric vehicle charging stations at seven locations, with plans to add more as new vehicles come into the fleet. We are also adopting energy-efficient LED vehicle lighting as the standard for our fleet in 2010 to reduce overall electricity use.
- Rio Tinto subsidiary US Borax is participating with Millenium Cell in the further development and possible commercialization of a process that generates pure hydrogen or electricity from environmentally friendly raw materials such as borates. In the Hydrogen on Demand™ process, the energy potential of hydrogen is carried in the chemical bonds of sodium borohydride, which in the presence of a catalyst either releases hydrogen or produces electricity.
- In August 2010 Royal Dutch/Shell signed a binding agreement with Cosan to form a joint venture for producing ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil. Following regulatory approval this would mark Shell’s first move into the production of biofuels.
- Royal Dutch/Shell works with Iogen Energy, a Canadian company, to develop the processing technology that enables ethanol to be made from straw using enzymes. Iogen opened a demonstration plant in Ottawa, Canada, in 2004.
- With US company Virent Energy Systems we also have a joint technology development programme to convert plant sugars directly into a range of high performance liquid transport fuels. In 2010 Virent opened a demonstration plant to convert plant sugars directly into petrol.
- Royal Dutch/Shell is part of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, a unique collaboration of auto manufacturers, energy companies, fuel cell companies, and government agencies. The partnership’s goal is to advance and evaluate new automobile technology that can move the world toward practical and affordable environmental solutions. The organization was formed in April 1999 and placed over 40 fuel cell vehicles—cars and buses—on the road between 2000 and 2003.
- Royal Dutch/Shell’s Shell Hydrogen was established in early 1999 to pursue and develop global business opportunities related to hydrogen and fuel cells. Shell Hydrogen is involved, through Icelandic New England Ltd, in a pioneering project that may bring about a complete transition to a hydrogen economy in the coming decades in Iceland.
In December 2009, Toyota launched the 2010 Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) demonstration program. The Prius PHV is based on the third-generation Prius, expanding Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive® technology with the introduction of a first generation lithium-ion (Li-ion) drive battery that enables all-electric operation at higher speeds and longer distances than the conventional Prius hybrid.
Toyota plans to bring the new RAV4 battery electric vehicle to market in 2012.
- Both the US EPA's Fuel Economy Guide and the Natural Resources Canada Fuel Consumption Guide for model year 2010 list the Toyota Prius as the most fuel-efficient vehicle available for sale in both countries.
- Toyota's low viscosity SAE (formerly known as the Society of Automotive Engineers) 0W-20 multigrade gasoline engine oil enables increased fuel economy performance over higher viscosity oils by reducing friction while maintaining necessary lubrication in the engine.
Toyota is committed to bringing hydrogen-powered vehicles to global markets in 2015, and it sees FCHVs (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles) as yet another critical element in its progression toward sustainable mobility.
Toyota's Green Wave Advisor enables traffic signals to communicate directly with the vehicle. The signals send information to the vehicle that is translated and displayed for the driver as a suggested range of speeds. If followed, this information will allow the driver to pass through a series of green lights for a more efficient
- Over the past decade, Toyota’s new automobile fleets have consistently achieved higher fleet average fuel economy than both the industry standard and the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard required by U.S. law - for both car and non-passenger (light truck and SUV) fleets.
Toyota is exploring ways to accelerate the research and development needed to commercialize bio?hydrocarbon fuels.
- Toyota is part of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, a unique collaboration of auto manufacturers, energy companies, fuel cell companies, and government agencies. The partnership’s goal is to advance and evaluate new automobile technology that can move the world toward practical and affordable environmental solutions. The organization was formed in April 1999 and placed over 40 fuel cell vehicles—cars and buses—on the road between 2000 and 2003. In addition to facilitating the placement of up to 300 vehicles in fleet demonstrations between 2004 and 2007, partnership members will build demonstration hydrogen fuel stations, act to facilitate a path towards commercialization of hydrogen, and enhance public awareness and support.
- Toyota is also part of the Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA) a public/private initiative to demonstrate and analyze fuel cell fueling options for fuel cell vehicles in Canada.
In February 2008, Chevron and Weyerhaeuser announced the creation of a 50-50 joint- venture company focused on developing the next generation of renewable transportation fuels from nonfood sources. The joint venture, Catchlight Energy LLC, will research and develop technology for converting cellulose-based biomass into economical, low-carbon biofuels.