Energy Demand Solutions
The following is a brief overview of energy demand solutions undertaken by members of C2ES's Business Environmental Leadership Council (BELC).
For more information on each of these companies efforts to address climate change, please see the Businesses Leading The Way section of this Web site.
Air Products and Chemicals
- Air Products and Chemicals’ efficiency engineers constantly monitor the performance of their major energy-intensive operations. In 2002, those engineers completed numerous global energy efficiency projects resulting in an estimated 26 MW of power savings; this is equivalent to the power consumed by 18,500 average homes annually and equivalent to avoiding 174,000 tons of CO2 emissions.
- Air Products works closely with its energy suppliers to make the most efficient use of their generation facilities to help them minimize their greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Air Products matches its energy needs to that of the energy supplier by shutting down production at times of peak demand and increasing production at other times. Such efforts contribute to "demand loading," a practice in which energy suppliers try to optimize the generational efficiency of a power plant by ensuring that it runs as close as possible to the point of maximum efficiency.
- Air Products is working with the DOE’s Vision 21 Program and other business partners on the development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen technology. Many emerging energy-production technologies, environmental cleanup technologies and industrial processes would benefit from using oxygen in place of air.
- Air Products and Chemicals and its partners were selected by the DOE Industries of the Future (IOF) Best Practices Program to demonstrate the potential for using CO2 to manufacture polyurethane. In addition to using less energy, the new process will be cleaner, significantly reduce the environmental impact of making the foam, and reduce the net release of CO2.
- Alcoa has reduced the electricity required to produce a ton of aluminum by 7.5% percent over the last 20 years.
- Alcoa supplies lightweight, recyclable materials for motor vehicle assembly; each kilogram of aluminum that replaces higher density materials provides the potential to save 20 kilograms of CO2e emissions via better fuel economy and recyclability.
- Although lighting accounts for less than one-half of one percent of American Water’s electricity use, facilities are incorporating high efficiency lighting technology to reduce energy use.
- In Pennsylvania, American Water is piloting a technology that allows its large energy consuming sites to reduce their electric consumption during peak events or times of energy usage. This "demand management" technology will avoid the need for additional power generation and reduce energy costs for its customers.
- Cummins has implemented energy conservation efforts in several of its facilities. Corporate headquarters and other major facilities have agreed to cut electricity consumption by 6 MW on peak demand days. Other facilities have installed air compressor controls and high-efficiency lighting, and have begun using hot water from engine testing to melt snow, reducing the need for electric resistance wiring.
Delta Air Lines, Inc.
Delta has replaced over 380,000 square feet of roof at Delta’s Technical Operations Center in Atlanta with white thermoplastic polyolefin roofing material. The reflective properties of this material reduce the use of energy for building heating and cooling. As a result of this installation, Delta saved over 165,000 kWh of annual energy use. In 2011, another $2.8 million will be invested in this eco-friendly roofing material at Delta’s Technical Operations Center.
An effort to reduce the use of electricity at Delta’s Technical Operations Center included the replacement of lighting fixtures in two hangars. Annual energy savings associated with this project total 1,802 metric tons of CO2 —equivalent to the annual emissions of 355 passenger vehicles.
In 2010, Dominion installed more than 30,000 smart meters and related technology in four Northern Virginia localities, bringing total installations in Virginia to about 100,000. These initial installations lay a foundation for more fully understanding the costs and benefits of smart meter technology as the company assesses its potential for reducing customers’ energy usage and improving grid reliability.
At Dominion East Ohio, the company is investing $9.5 million a year in demand-side management (DSM) programs for its Ohio customers. Of that annual total, $6.5 million is funding home weatherization programs for qualified low-income customers, administered by the Cleveland Housing Network.
Dominion also created a DSM Collaborative, comprised of Dominion East Ohio, the Staff of the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio, consumer advocates and other interested stakeholders. Based on DSM Collaborative input, we are investing $3 million a year towards a residential retrofit program called "Home Performance with Energy Star."
Dominion maintains four voluntary energy efficiency and conservation programs that are expected to save our customers an estimated $290 million over the next 15 years. There are two residential programs and two commercial programs. These offerings are also expected to provide significant environmental benefits and help Dominion meet the state of Virginia’s voluntary 10 percent energy conservation goal by 2022.
Smart Cooling Rewards: Customers receive $40 annually for letting Dominion cycle on and off their air conditioner or heat pump system during periods of high demand.
Home Energy Improvement Program: A free in-home energy audit and improvement program for income-qualified customers, where an energy specialist will examine a customer's home, generate a custom audit report and complete energy efficiency improvements.
HVAC Rewards: Customers who replace their HVAC system or install a new HVAC system with one that has a higher efficiency rating than the current national minimum requirements receive a rebate for part of the price of the system, based on a per ton rate.
Lighting Rewards: Customers who retrofit existing lighting with more efficient lighting receive a rebate based on a per fixture rate.
- Since 1994 Dow has saved $9.2 billion and 1700 trillion BTUs due to improved energy intensity.
- Dow has initiated 40 energy efficiency projects at facilities in the U.S., Germany, Spain, France and The Netherlands that are anticipated to save approximately 8 trillion BTUs of energy and reduce CO2 emission by more than 400,000 metric tons. Selected for their ability to reduce energy use and GHG emissions, as well as accelerated energy cost savings, these projects are sponsored with $84 million from the Energy Intensity Improvement Fund and demonstrate Dow’s expertise in developing energy efficiency innovations to achieve environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.
In the fall of 2009, Cobblestone Homes approached The Dow Chemical Company about partnering on a net-zero energy home. The company embraced the concept and Vision Zero was born. Throughout the next six months, the two companies worked together to develop plans and select technologies that would insulate and seal the building envelope as well as generate renewable energy.
- DTE Energy works with customers to find ways they can help protect the environment by using energy wisely. DTE Energy Partnership has a staff of more than 40 energy engineers that work with businesses to increase efficiency.
- Duke Energy seeks to reduce customer energy consumption by 2500 GW and peak demand by 2,100 MW by 2013
Duke Energy received regulatory approval to implement the smart grid in Ohio in 2008 and began full-scale deployment in 2010. of the technology. Duke Energy has installed approximately 140,000 smart electric meters, 100,000 smart gas meters, and 22,000 communication nodes in Ohio — eliminating the need for manual meter readings and giving customers greater insight into their daily energy usage.
Duke Energy is conducting a pilot Smart Grid program in Indiana and expects a ruling about the future of the program from the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) in July 2011.
Beginning in 2011, Duke Energy's Residential Smart Saver will give Kentucky residents incentives of as much as $250 to cover part of the cost of items like air sealing, attic insulation, duct sealing, and tuneups for air conditioning and heat pumps. The incentives also will be available for the installation of high-efficiency heat pumps or air conditioners in homes. The program won't have income limits. Instead of the incentives, Duke will provide direct installation of energy efficiency options for low-income customers.
Duke's various programs also include energy audits, energy bill assistance and financial incentives to customers who let the utility remotely turn off their air conditioners during peak usage times in the summer months.
- DuPont used seven percent less total energy in 2004 than it did in 1990, despite an almost 30 percent increase in production. Compared to a linear increase in energy with production, this achievement has resulted in $2 billion in cumulative energy savings.
- DuPont Tyvek housewrap improves the energy efficiency of buildings, with energy savings in the first year of use alone some 10-20 times the energy required to produce the product.
- DuPont’ engineering polymers in applications like intake manifolds help to safely reduce the weight of motor vehicles and improve their fuel efficiency.
As of June 2011, Entergy's pilot program SmartView has provided 2,500 New Orleans residents with "smart meters" to provide real-time updates on their power use.
Entery deploys energy efficiency/Demand Side Management programs throughout Entergy's service territory. Currently there are 25 EE/DSM programs that cover all customer classes (residential, commercial and industrial). Recognizing the powerful benefits associated with energy efficiency, Entergy created an Energy Efficiency Task Force to identify initiatives that can reduce systemwide energy demand by a goal of 300 megawatts.
Entergy, under its commitment to stabilize power plant CO2 emissions, has implemented 44 internal GHG reduction programs as of December 2003 that will achieve a projected 1 million tons of CO2 equivalent reduction by 2005. Several of these projects focus on using less fuel to generate electricity at power plants: two projects allow generating units to operate on less power when in stand-by mode, while two other projects are installing advanced controls to regulate the combustion processes in selected plant boilers. These projects are dedicated to improving the efficiency and capacity factor of Entergy’s cleanest and lowest emitting fossil, nuclear, and renewable electric generating units.
- Exelon Energy Delivery’s Smart Returns Load Reduction Programs
- ComEd’s 10 Smart Returns products represent one of the largest, most successful loads response portfolios in the United States. The programs provide customers with a financial incentive to curtail use, while benefiting the community and the environment through a lower, more stable load. The more customers curtail use, the more financial incentives they can potentially earn.
- From single-family residential homes to large steel mills, the Smart Returns products provide opportunities for almost every customer to participate. ComEd works closely with large commercial, institutional and industrial customers to customize curtailment plans and maximize energy efficiency opportunities. On hot summer days, ComEd’s load response programs can contribute a 1,000-MW reduction to system peak loads.
- PECO’s Smart Returns program has three products, and customers may participate in any or all. The first, active load management (ALM), is a program in which participating customers guarantee that they will reduce their energy consumption within one hour of PECO’s request. This emergency program is designed to respond to events that are triggered within the PJM Interconnection, a regional transmission organization. During 2004, PECO gained 26 MW of new ALM customer load, in addition to the existing 74 MW under contract.
- Under the second Smart Returns program, voluntary load reduction, customers receive a one-hour notification to curtail energy consumption and share in a percentage of PECO’s energy cost savings. PECO had 123 MW under this program for 2004.
- Finally, PJM’s voluntary Economic and Emergency Load Response Programs provide an additional Smart Returns choice for potential load response customers. During 2004, PECO signed up more than 200 MW.
- EED internal energy efficiency initiative
- The Exelon Environmental Strategy Energy Efficiency Team was charged with the goals of improving energy efficiency at EED facilities by 3 percent annually from 2003–2007 and developing recommendations for expanding the program to other Exelon facilities. The team, which supports 74 EED facilities and 8,200 employees, implemented a broad strategy that includes a budget for collateral materials, facility benchmarking and energy audits, efficiency retrofits and a multiyear communications plan with internal articles, posters and stickers to remind employees to turn off computers and lights when not in use.
- For 2004, EED reduced energy consumption by 7 million kilowatt hours (kWh) compared to the 2002 baseline. Normalizing the data based on 30-year averages and the current year heating and cooling degree-days resulted in an improvement of 4 percent in 2003 and 3.8 percent in 2004, thus exceeding the goal each year.
- Currently, there is a focus within Exelon Nuclear to identify energy efficiency opportunities.
- Green corporate headquarters
- In 2004, Exelon’s Real Estate and Facilities business unit initiated the consolidation of our three downtown Chicago locations into a single flagship headquarters. We believe that greater cross-collaboration between functions can achieve synergies that will improve productivity. The new headquarters will contribute toward reducing our real estate costs.
- We will demonstrate our environmental stewardship by incorporating sustainable design and building practices into the headquarters’ design. The U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program defines the parameters for building and operating new and existing buildings to be more environmentally friendly. In determining whether Exelon could participate in the LEED program without incurring an unreasonable cost premium, we recognized that the building and design marketplace has evolved to a point where the new headquarters can incorporate many established and forward-thinking elements of sustainable design and construction. The costs associated with sustainable design are now on a par with typical building materials and processes. We are confident that the new headquarters will be an inviting, innovative and practical space for our employees and visitors for years to come.
- EED support of Chicago Green City goal
- The Exelon Marketing Technical Services (MTS) team actively supports Chicago’s efforts to make the city the greenest community in the United States. Exelon’s support ranges from energy efficiency work in city facilities to efficiency improvements in industrial facilities and sustainable design outreach.
- Retrofits in city facilities. In 2004, MTS conducted a benchmark study evaluating energy efficiency opportunities such as lighting retrofits and solar domestic water heating for the city’s firehouses. Exelon also completed lighting retrofits at several Chicago Transit Authority and City Colleges of Chicago facilities, including bus garages, repair shops, classrooms, laboratories, gymnasiums and swimming pools. In aggregate, the projects saved more than 1,500 kW in installed lighting load, 9.6 million kWh in annual electricity consumption and 20.5 million pounds of CO2 emissions.
- Saving energy, avoiding emissions and improving Chicago’s economy. In conjunction with the University of Illinois and the city’s Department of Environment, MTS supports and coordinates Chicago’s Industrial Rebuild Program targeted to specific industrial segments. In 2004, ComEd completed assessments of chemical manufacturers and continued assessments of confectionery companies. These efforts identified potential annual savings of 3.7 million kWh and 14.5 million cubic feet of water and avoidance of 5.5 million pounds of CO2 emissions.
- Sustainable design. Through creation of a Chicago Standard, the city is committed to LEED certification for all new buildings. ComEd is providing technical support for operating efficiency, maintenance practices and training of building staff. ComEd is also commissioning four new Chicago Public Schools.
- GM reduced energy use at its global facilities 39% between 2005 and 2009. These savings also reduced greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 3 million metric tons over that timeframe.
- General Motors’ Lansing Delta Township Assembly Plant in Michigan has a gold certification from the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. The building is the first automotive manufacturing plant in the world – as well as the largest facility and the most complex manufacturing site – to ever receive any level of LEED certification.
- GM has invested $40 million in various clean energy projects throughout America with a goal to reduce 8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions. The initiative is based on projects that promote energy savings, renewable energy, responsible use of natural resources and conservation in communities across the United States.
- HP participates in the US EPA’s ENERGY STAR® Program, and more than 300 of its products are ENERGY STAR® qualified.
- HP uses “Instant On” technology in many of its laser-jet printers, allowing them to save energy from immediately shifting from active printing to a power saving “sleep mode,” without sacrificing printer reliability or the time needed to start the next job.
- HP is developing “all-in-one” products that combine several typical office appliances into one machine, saving up to forty percent in energy and materials.
- HP has implemented energy-saving measures at many of its own facilities. These measures include installing automated and centralized control systems to minimize energy consumption and maximize efficiency, establishing new temperature set-points, reducing lighting, encouraging employees to turn off lights, computers, and other appliances when not in use, and educating employees about energy conservation. At its Roseville technology campus in California, the percentage of computers left on after work dropped from 33 percent to 8 percent in one year.
- In June 2011, IBM launched its Intelligent Building Management software, which the IT company estimates can reduce maintenance costs by 10 to 30 percent, and cut energy usage by up to 40 percent. IBM says that the software offers a comprehensive view of energy and facility operations with real-time energy management and performance optimization through end-to-end visibility. It works by collecting real-time data and events from sensors on boilers, air ducts, lights, water pipes, chillers, computer rooms, and external temperature monitors, as well as from building management systems.
- In 2009, IBM’s four-processor and UNIX-based POWER® 750 Express and Power 755 enterprise servers became the first four-processor servers in the industry to be qualified to the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR server requirements. These systems are able to deliver significantly more workload and support many more individual applications on a single server than comparable one- or two processor ENERGY STAR systems.
- IBM achieved a 6.1 percent reduction in total conventional energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures and through the procurement of renewables. This corresponds to an approximate reduction of 173,500 tons of CO2 at a cost savings of $17.3 million.
- IBM sets targets for product efficiency for a wide range of products. One-hundred percent of new IBM personal computers, monitors, and printer office models introduced from 2001 through 2003 met the ENERGY STAR® criteria. Continued focus on reducing non-productive standby power ("off" mode for those products having power management) has resulted in AC adaptors offered with IBM's ThinkPads since 2001 using less than 1 watt in standby, with the majority using less than 0.6 watts.
- Intel now has a policy of designing all new buildings to a minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver level. A design center in Haifa, Israel—completed in 2010—is our first LEED-certified building and was the first building in Israel to receive LEED Gold certification
- Since 2001, Intel has invested more than $45 million and completed over 1,500 projects (as of 2010), saving more than 790 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy, or the approximate CO2 emissions from the electricity use of more than 69,000 average U.S. homes for one year1.
- Intel, working closely with ENERGY STAR® implemented power management on 65,000 laptop displays and 45,000 desktop monitors worldwide. This initiative will save about 9,650,000 kWh over the next year, or enough electricity to light 11,000 U.S. homes for one month. At $0.05 per kWh, Intel will realize an annual savings of $482,000.
- Intel provides enabling technology for electronics manufacturers to build products that meet or exceed the ENERGY STAR® standard. For example, Intel’s Instantly Available PC allows PCs to go to under 5 watts "sleep mode" with wake up in under 5 seconds. From 2002 to 2010, these savings will prevent 159 metric tons of CO2 emissions.
- The Johnson Controls headquarters campus at Glendale, Wisconsin now has the largest concentration of buildings on one campus to ever receive LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum certification.
NextEra Energy, Inc.
- Florida Power & Lights (FPL) has improved the fuel efficiency of its fossil power plant fleet by 13 percent since 2000 and by 19 percent since 1990. Today, FPL’s fossil power plant fleet uses only about 8,200 BTUs of heat from fuel to produce a kilowatt-hour of electricity, or nearly 20 percent less than the fossil industry average of 10,100
- Under the World Wildlife Fund's PowerSwitch! program, FPL committed to a 25 percent improvement in electric generation efficiency by 2020 from a 2002 baseline
- FPL has saved more megawatts through demand-side management programs than all but one other utility in the country. These efforts have allowed FPL to avoid building 13 medium-size power plants since 1980
- Energy Efficient Building Design – NextEra Energy, Inc. donated 80 rooftop solar panels for the Palm Beach Zoo, helping it become the first zoo in the country to achieve LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold Certification by the U.S. Green Building Council.
- Reliant Energy, a subsidiary of NRG Energy, leads Texas in bringing the benefits of smart energy technology to consumers with more than 225,000 customers signed up for e-Sense smart energy solutions.
- NRG's strategy includes repowering older facilities with new high efficiency units that produce far less greenhouse gas emissions per megawatt of electricity. As newer units come online, older units are placed on deactivated reserve or decommissioned
- NRG Energy's Dover and Minneapolis energy centers provided 1,500 compact florescent light bulbs for local low income families. The lamps were distributed by Catholic Charities in the Dover area to eligible households who apply for energy assistance benefits under the Delaware Energy Assistance Program.
- PG&E Corporation’s utility, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, reduced overall energy use in 2002 at 88 of its California facilities by almost 24 percent compared with 1998 baseline energy usage levels through energy efficiency and conservation. This resulted in savings of almost 28 gigawatt-hours of electricity, and prevented approximately 7,000 tons of CO2 from being emitted to the atmosphere.
- PG&E reduced energy use in offices and service yards by 5 percent—or 19,900 MMBTUs—meeting our target for the year. To save energy, it installed programmable thermostats at more than 60 locations, replaced office and yard lighting at selected sites and installed new energy management systems in two buildings.
- Since 1990, Pacific Gas and Electric Company's customer energy efficiency programs have cumulatively saved more than 138 million MWh of electricity (cumulative 36 million to 80 million tons of CO2 emissions avoided, depending on whether a base or peak load emission factor is used). Customer energy savings realized in 2002 were approximately 4.9 million MWh of electricity and 160 million therms of natural gas—enough to power approximately 740,000 homes for a year. The emissions avoided from these actions alone totaled approximately 2.8 million tons of CO2.
- PNM is one of four U.S. utilities to be selected by EPRI as host sites for a smart-grid demonstration project. PNM's project will combine demand-side management, energy storage and solar PV to further the understanding of integration technologies and standards needed to allow for greater deployment of renewables and energy efficiency. The five-year, multi-phased project is a collaborative effort between PNM, EPRI, Mesa del Sol, Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico and Northern New Mexico Community College.
- PNM's customer energy efficiency programs are projected to reduce carbon emissions by an estimated 80 million pounds, or 36,000 metric tons, per year. This is the equivalent of removing more than 6,600 cars from the road.
- Rio Tinto and the Australian Government announced the formation in 2002 of the Rio Tinto Foundation for a Sustainable Minerals Industry, a research and technical development partnership to jointly fund sustainable minerals industry programs, including projects related to energy efficiency and greenhouse gas sequestration.
- Royal Dutch/Shell is utilizing an in-house developed energy-efficiency program to support its 5-year energy-efficiency targets. The program, operated through Shell Global Solutions and known as Energise, helps facilities identify, implement, and sustain energy efficiency projects.
In March of 2010, the U.S. EPA awarded Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc., with a 2010 ENERGY STAR® Sustained Excellence Award — the
sixth consecutive award under the ENERGY STAR program.
- Toyota’s 624,000 square-foot headquarters expansion in Torrance, CA includes buildings that are expected to exceed state energy-efficiency standards by 20 percent. The facility includes a 500 kW photovoltaic system, and was awarded a certification of LEEDTM Gold by the U.S. Green Building Council in April 2003.
- In an effort to reduce energy usage from its sales and distribution network, Toyota established an energy usage database that is updated monthly. Through the help of this database and other efforts, Toyota has reduced total energy consumption by 11% in its sales and distribution network since 2000. These savings include the avoided consumption of over 18 million kwh of electricity, 707,000 therms of natural gas, and cost savings of over $2.8 million.
- TransAlta improved its energy efficiency by an estimated 3 to 5 percent by upgrading turbines, cooling towers, advanced control systems, boilers, and heat exchangers.
- TransAlta reduced emission intensity y 12% at all Alberta fossil-based plants in 2009 through a combination of purchased offsets, emision performance credits and Technology Fund contributions under Alberta's Specified gas Emitters Regulation.