The last time so many world leaders gathered on the issue of climate change was nearly five years ago in Copenhagen. The hard lesson of that fractious summit: No one moment, and no one agreement, can deliver “the” answer. We need to advance step by step, on multiple fronts, from the local to the global. And it will take time.
More than 120 heads of state, including President Obama, are expected, and many will come prepared to announce concrete steps to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Many businesses and nonprofits, some partnering with governments, will also announce new initiatives.
These tangible outcomes will represent important progress in and of themselves. But the larger value of the summit is in focusing leaders on the profound challenges we face, raising consciousness across societies, and building momentum – in particular, toward the new global climate agreement due late next year in Paris.
It has been 10 years since the movie The Day After Tomorrow offered a highly embellished vision of a climate “tipping point” in which polar ice sheets melt, shut down the Gulf Stream, and plunge Europe and much of the U.S. into a deep freeze.
While most of The Day After Tomorrow is safely in the realm of science fiction, there is real science to back up concerns that tipping points in the climate system could cause potentially irreversible, and in some cases drastic, changes in our climate.
Figure 1: Potential tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system overlaid with population density. Question marks indicate systems whose status as tipping elements is particularly uncertain. Source: National Climate Assessment 2014.
One way to reduce power plant carbon emissions is to reduce the demand for electricity. Encouraging customer energy efficiency is one of the building blocks underpinning the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Power Plan. But the plan does not distinguish among uses of electricity. That means, without further options, the Clean Power Plan could inadvertently discourage states from deploying electric vehicles (EVs), electric mass transit, and other technologies that use electricity instead of a dirtier fuel.
In all but very coal-heavy regions, using electricity as a transportation fuel, especially in mass transit applications, results in the emission of far less carbon dioxide than burning gasoline. In industry, carbon emissions can be cut by using electric conveyance systems instead of diesel- or propane-fueled forklifts and electric arc furnaces instead of coal boilers.
Under the proposed power plant rules, new uses of electricity would be discouraged regardless of whether a state pursues a rate-based target (pounds of emissions per unit of electricity produced) or a mass-based target (tons of emissions per year).
EPA has a few options to make sure regulations for power plants would not discourage uses of electricity that result in less carbon emissions overall.
The 113th Congress (2013-2014) is on track to be one of the least productive and most divided in history. No legislation explicitly mentioning climate change has been enacted into law, but more bills and resolutions related to climate change have been introduced in this Congress than in the previous one. (For brevity, we refer to all legislative proposals, including resolutions, and amendments, and draft bills, as “bills.”)
Only two bills loosely related to climate change (though not directly referencing it) have been passed and signed into law: the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act and the Hurricane Sandy Relief bill, which provided $17 billion and $9.7 billion, respectively, to cope with Sandy’s aftermath.
Of the 221 bills introduced that explicitly reference climate change or related terms, such as greenhouse gases or carbon dioxide, the majority support climate action. These focus primarily on building resilience to a changing climate, supporting the deployment of clean energy, and improving energy efficiency. A number would use some form of carbon pricing to reduce emissions.
I’m honored and excited to be taking the helm today of an organization that has done so much to build common ground for practical climate and energy solutions. Throughout my career, I’ve worked to bring diverse interests together to protect both our environment and our economy. I’m eager to continue that work at the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions.
We are at a critical time, with both the obligation and the opportunity to forge lasting solutions to the profound challenge of climate change. Innovation is opening new possibilities in transportation, energy efficiency and generation, resource extraction, and renewable energy. With smart and creative policy, we can harness and drive this innovation – and the power of markets – to secure our energy, economic and climate future.
During my time at EPA, in the nonprofit sector, and in state and local government, I’ve worked together with stakeholders to find consensus solutions to complex challenges. From neighborhood redevelopment efforts, to statewide solid waste plans, to working with auto and energy companies on EPA rules, bringing people together has not always been easy, but it’s always proven the best way forward.
And that is precisely what distinguishes C2ES – a commitment to bringing people together to forge practical policy solutions. From the local to the global, C2ES works closely with members of its Business Environmental Leadership Council, with policymakers, and with a wide array of other stakeholders to unpack the issues and options and to build common ground.
I want to thank the C2ES Board of Directors, and most importantly our founding president, Eileen Claussen, for building such an outstanding organization, and for entrusting me with its stewardship. I look forward to working with the board, and with the dedicated and talented C2ES team, to broaden our reach and our impact in the years ahead.
There is so much remarkable work going on in the United States and around the world to develop innovative, practical solutions that meet our climate, energy and economic needs. I’m excited to bring my own energy to C2ES to help meet this historic challenge. Future generations are counting on us all to keep that vision in sight.